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Darwin in letters, 1881: Old friends and new admirers

Summary

In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began writing about all the eminent men he had met. He embarked on this task, which formed an addition to his autobiography, because he had nothing else to do. He had…

Matches: 20 hits

  • In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began
  • a very old man, who probably will not last much longer.’ Darwins biggest fear was not death, but
  • sweetest place on this earth’. From the start of the year, Darwin had his demise on his mind. He
  • provision for the dividing of his wealth after his death. Darwins gloominess was compounded by the
  • in Unconscious memory in November 1880 and in an abusive letter about Darwin in the St Jamess
  • memory in Kosmos and sent Darwin a separate letter for publication in the Journal of Popular
  • publishers decided to print500 more, making 2000’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January 1881 ) …
  • 31 January [1881] and 19 February [1881] ). On 7 March , Darwin sent his discussion of the
  • the animal learnt from its own individual experience ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 7 March 1881 ). …
  • the sale of books beinga game of chance’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 12 April 1881 ). On 18 May
  • he would feelless sulky in a day or two’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 July 1881 ). The degree of
  • falls at this late period of the season’ ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 30 July 1881 ). Darwin gave in
  • with you’, a Swedish teacher told him ( letter from C. E. Södling, 14 October 1881 ), while H. M. …
  • to possibilities for women, judging from her organization &c’. When Darwin replied the following
  • … ‘bread-winners’ ( Correspondence vol. 30, letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). …
  • publication & to acknowledge any criticism’ ( letter to C. G. Semper, 19 July 1881 ). He
  • to bear thewear & tear of controversy’ ( letter to G. R. Jesse, 23 April 1881 ). Later in
  • everyone elses judgment on the subject ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 12 July 1881 ). However, some
  • judge this seems true’, Darwin reported to Romanes on 7 August . Family joys An
  • do not be disappointed if the sale is small’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 5 October 1881 ). The

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • anything more on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • and despite Darwins best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from RFCooke
  • condition as I can make it’, he wrote to the translator ( letter to JJMoulinié, 23 September
  • remained unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November 1872 ). …
  • Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ). I
  • … `chiefly perhaps because I do it badly’ ( letter to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  …
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • … & new views which are daily turning up’ ( letter to ARWallace, 28 August [1872] ).  …
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • and with John Murrays assistant, the excitable Robert CookeDarwin, as with  Origin , was
  • to pay something for the privilege   . . . ?’ queried Cooke despairingly, `or have you agreed to
  • …  & have not taken care of ourselves’ ( letter from RFCooke, 20 November 1872 ). A
  • supply; the initial print run of 5000 was increased to 7000, but although the printers had the text
  • 4 November 1872 , and letter to JSCraig, 7 November 1872 ). But recognition was far from

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 22 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • turned out, alas, very dull & has disappointed me much’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 15 [June
  • home again’, he fretted, just days before his departure ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26
  • many blessings, was finding old agea dismal time’ ( letter to Henry Johnson, 24 September 1879 ) …
  • wrinkles one all over like a baked pear’ ( enclosure in letter from R. W. Dixon, 20 December 1879
  • itself, or gone some other way round?’ At least the last letter of 1879 contained a warmer note and
  • nice and good as could be’ ( letter from Karl Beger, [ c. 12 February 1879] ). The masters of
  • of the Admiralty described the unknown young man asA M r Darwin grandson of the well known
  • … ‘almost indispensable’ ( letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 ). Darwin welcomed Krauses
  • leaving Darwinmore perplexed than ever about life of D r . D’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 12
  • the highest point, for hiswhy”—“what for” &c are incessant’, Darwin joked on 2 July (first
  • which is his profession thonot a profitable one; also D r  C[lark]’s opinion that he was so
  • meet the local celebrity, John Ruskin. Marshall wrote on 7 September that Ruskin, the day after
  • greatly amused Darwin, who felt it wasvery acute of M r  Ruskin to know that I feel a deep & …
  • dogma’, Mary Jung, a young Austrian woman, wrote on 7 January . ‘When my reason agrees with your
  • be an atheist, Darwin told the clergyman John Fordyce on 7 May , ‘It seems to me absurd to doubt
  • knowledgeobservation & experiment’ ( letter from J. F. Moulton, 10 December 1879 ). In reply
  • work in such an outstanding way’, Würtenberger wrote on 7 February , after receiving £100 from
  • and preventCattle diseases, Potato diseases &c’, probably did not know that Darwin had already

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 22 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • Andone looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • was an illusory hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • inferred that he was well from his silence on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • twenty-four shillings.) Murrays partner, Robert Francis Cooke, informed Darwin that the lower price
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • sexual criminality of Pagan days’ ([Mivart] 1874b, p. 70). 'scurrilous libel' …
  • Correspondence vol. 22, Appendix V and Dawson 2007, pp. 7781). Darwin first considered taking
  • … & it had been refused’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, [6 or 7 August 1874] ). When the letter was
  • from the moment of being hatched ( letter to  Nature , 7 and 11 May [1874] ; Spalding 1872a). …
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • more in my life than this days work’ ( letter to D. F. Nevill, 18 September [1874] ).Franciss
  • structure and mechanism that Darwin agreed with ( letter to F. J. Cohn, 12 October 1874 ). Darwin
  • other end of the spectrum, the Dublin accounts clerk Thomas Cooke Copland sent Darwin details of an
  • from his sons George and Francis ( letter to Anton Dohrn, 7 March 1874 ). Dohrn replied
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • quantity of workleft in him fornew matter’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). The
  • to a reprint of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February
  • … & I for blundering’, he cheerfully observed to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. …
  • provided evidence for theadvantages of crossing’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). Revising
  • year to write about his life ( Correspondence vol. 23, letter from Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg, 20
  • effected by his forthcoming pamphlet, Darwin confounded (C. OShaughnessy 1876), which, he
  • nowadays is evolution and it is the correct one’ ( letter from Nemo, [1876?] ). …
  • himbaselyand who had succeeded in giving him pain ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 June 1876 ). …
  • disgraceof blackballing so distinguished a zoologist ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 29 January 1876 ) …
  • years experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [ c . 19 March 1876] ). A less welcome reaction
  • shoemaker and ardent naturalist Thomas Edward ( letter from F. M. Balfour, 11 December 1876 ; …
  • because of along and terrible illness’ ( letter to C. S. Wedgwood, 20 April 1876 ). By the time
  • the more shocking because associated with a happy event. On 7 September, Charles and Emma became
  • value’, wasextremely dry’, he informed Robert Cooke on 16 September . Darwin was apologetic
  • Friedrich Hildebrand, 6 December 1876 , and letter from F. J. Cohn, 31 December 1876 ). …
  • in harmony with yours’ ( letter from George Henslow, [ c. 7 December 1876] ). A more typical

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 25 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • my grandfathers character is of much value to me’ ( letter to C. H. Tindal, 5 January 1880 ). …
  • have influenced the whole Kingdom, & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880
  • Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to explain away y r . treatment of [William Alvey Darwin],’ …
  • delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and
  • much powder & shot’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and
  • by anticipation the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old
  • modified; but now I much regret that I did not do so’ ( letter to Samuel Butler, 3 January 1880 ). …
  • to the end’, added her husband Richard ( letter from R. B. Litchfield, 1 February 1880 ). Even the
  • writing to his publishers business partner Robert Cooke on 23 April , ‘My family shake their
  • is the profit for Author or publisher?’ ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 20 July 1880 ). ‘I must take
  • science, I must now lose some for science’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 21 July 1880 ). The worries
  • corresponding structural differentiations’ ( letter from F. M. Balfour, [22 November 1880] ). …
  • in a book about beetles the impressive wordscaptured by C. Darwin”. … This seemed to me glory
  • … ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of the family
  • study to public-school pupils ( letter to Francis Galton, 7 April 1880 , and letter from Francis
  • he had received from German and Dutch naturalists on his 70th birthday, and some of his recent work
  • great doctrines …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). …
  • B. Buckley, 31 October [1880] ). Buckley reported back on 7 November : ‘At first he hesitated
  • his voice as clearly as if he were present’ (letters to C. W. Fox, 29 March 1880 and 10 [April

Cross and self fertilisation

Summary

The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom, published on 10 November 1876, was the result of a decade-long project to provide evidence for Darwin’s belief that ‘‘Nature thus tells us, in the most emphatic manner, that she abhors…

Matches: 26 hits

  • the result of a decade-long project to provide evidence for Darwins belief that ‘‘Nature thus tells
  • on plants with two or three different forms of flowers, Darwin had focused on the anatomical and
  • of different forms of pollen. Although many plants that Darwin observed had flowers with adaptations
  • rates, growth, and constitutional vigour. Although Darwin was no stranger to long months and years
  • … … is highly remarkableIn September 1866, Darwin announced to the American botanist
  • several years ( To Édouard Bornet, 1 December 1866 ). Darwin began a series of experiments, …
  • … ). It was only after a new season of experiments that Darwin would confirm that this poppy shed its
  • access to flowers was only the tip of the iceberg. Darwin next focused on the California
  • conditions’ ( From Fritz Müller, 1 December 1866 ). Darwins interest was piqued and he described
  • when self-fertilised, although fewer than crossed plants. Darwin sent some of these seeds to Müller, …
  • … [1868] ). Müller, in turn, sent seeds from his plants to Darwin and both men continued to
  • Müller remarked, on receiving a new batch of seeds from Darwin, ‘that it wascurious to see, on
  • … ( From Fritz Müller, 15 June 1869 ). By May 1870, Darwin reported that he wasrearing crossed
  • From a fairly early stage in his experimental programme, Darwin began to pay more attention to the
  • seeds of Ipomœa. I remember saying the contrary to you & M r  Smith at Kew. But the result is
  • 17 March [1867] ). He noted another factor in a letter to Gray, remarking, ‘I am going on with my
  • the sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus ), and in October 1867, Darwin wrote to James Moggridge to ask
  • of the year ( To JTMoggridge, 1 October [1867] ). Darwin was beginning to suspect that the
  • relationship had lessened the fertility of the offspring (F. Müller 1868b, p. 629). Darwin urged
  • I am already plagued by foreign Translators, Reviewers, &c.’ ( To John Murray, 4 May [1873] ). …
  • … [1873] ). In September, Darwin wrote a long letter to Nature commenting on a seemingly
  • add new researches on this subject. ( To JVCarus   7 February 1875 ). In fact, Darwin had
  • the set of all my works, I would suggest 1,500’ ( To R. F. Cooke, 16 September 1876 ). In the
  • first grandchild, a son born to Amy and Francis Darwin on 7 September, suddenly turned to tragedy
  • of hybrids, has not yet been produced’ ( From ARWallace, 13 December 1876 ). No reply to this
  • 1877, the edition wasnearly exhausted’ ( From R. F. Cooke, 16 March 1877 ). In November 1877, …

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The power of movement in plants , published on 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • the advantages of both while Francis was working abroad. Darwin was privy to the inner workings of
  • methods and use the most advanced laboratory equipment. Darwin also benefitted from the instrument
  • had considered combining the works in a single volume ( letter to J. V. Carus, 7 February 1875 ). …
  • … ‘ Frank & I are working very hard on bloom & sleep &c.; but I am horribly afraid all
  • … , a plant that exhibited all three types of movement ( letter from RILynch, [before 28 July
  • described and illustrated Horaces machine in a paper (F. Darwin 1880, pp. 44955). …
  • the woodblock using photography for scientific accuracy ( letter from JDCooper13 December
  • lost colour, withered, and died within a couple of days ( letter from A. F. Batalin28 February
  • how their observations could have been so much at odds ( letter to Hugo de Vries 13 February 1879
  • to learn about cutting thin sections of soft leaves &c.— Lastly the instrument for making marks
  • to translate the paper into German, and it appeared in 1880 (F. Darwin 1880b). In the same letter, …
  • turgescence and growth ( letter from Hugo de Vries7 August 1879 ). Darwin replied, ‘ I thank
  • the curious mode of germinationand concluded, ‘ M r  Rattan seems to be a real good observer, …
  • ofCircumnutating Movements of Plants’, he told Robert Cooke of John Murray publishers, before
  • orThe Nature of the Movements of Plants’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke23 April [1880] ). Cooke
  • the length of the book was projected at 600 pages, which, Cooke pointed out wasa good deal more’ …
  • was willing to publish on the usual terms ( letter from R. F. Cooke15 July 1880 ). This was also
  • pay more for at the usual rate of charging per inch &c they w dbe over £40’; he suggested

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 26 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read Decandolle Philosophie
  • … [DAR *119: 2v.] Whites regular gradation in man [C. White 1799] Lindleys
  • 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian
  • 1835] read Marcel de Serres Cavernes dOssements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] …
  • de S t  Hilaire 1832 [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 18327] contains all his fathers views Quoted by
  • in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on Geog. distrib: of Brit: …
  • Volneys 18  Travels in Syria [Volney 1787].—vol I. p. 71. account of Europæan plants transplanted
  • … [T. S. B. Raffles 1817] Buffon Suites [Buffon 183474]. Much on Geograph. Distrib. …
  • of Asiatic Soc. Vol. II & Vol. III [DAR *119: 7v.] Storia della Riproduzione
  • … [Reimarius 1760] The Highlands & Western Isl ds  letter to Sir W Scott [MacCulloch 1824
  • 183440]: In Portfolio ofabstracts34  —letter from Skuckard of books on Silk Worm
  • M rs  Frys Life [Fry 1847] Horace Walpoles letter to C t . of Ossory [Walpole 1848] …
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • Asiatic Society ]—contains very little Macleays letter to D r  Fleming [Macleay 1830] …
  • an Eastern King [Knighton] 1855] read The Hon ble  Cooke Journey to Oregon Bon. Price [Coke
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …
  • Robert. 1843Memoirs of the life of John   Constable, R.A., composed chiefly of his letters. …
  • Peacock, George. 1855Life of Thomas Young, M.D., F.R.S.  London.  *128: 172; 128: 21