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To Nature   14 April [1881]


Summarises a letter from Fritz Müller [missing] giving details of leaf movement in Mucuna, Desmodium, and Bauhinia. CD is especially interested in the paraheliotropic movements, which appear to be as common as sleep movements.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Nature
Date:  14 Apr [1881]
Classmark:  Nature 23 (1881): 603–4; Collected papers 2: 228–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13117

To Francis Darwin   [April 1881]


Reports splendid cases of "paraheliotropism" which he now believes is one of the commonest movements of plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  [Apr 1881]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 71
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13103

From Jules Rouquette de St Geniez   April 1881


Dedication of his essay in the form of a letter to CD.

Author:  Jules (Saint Geniez) Rouquette
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  Apr 1881
Classmark:  DAR pamphlet R339: 2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13103A

To W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   1 April 1881


Wants Monochaetum flowers for examination as he has forgotten the structure and cannot publish until he has repeated his observations and experiments.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  1 Apr 1881
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Darwin: Letters to Thiselton-Dyer, 1873–81: ff. 214–15)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13104

From Marie McElroy   1 April 1881


Asks whether blue eyes are peculiar to the human species.

Author:  Marie McElroy
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Apr 1881
Classmark:  DAR 201: 23
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13105

To W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   3 April 1881


Thanks for Monochaetum flowers; his old notes have now become intelligible.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  3 Apr 1881
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Darwin: Letters to Thiselton-Dyer, 1873–81: f. 216)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13106

To E. J. Loomis   4 April 1881


CD is familiar with EJL’s work [on Asplenium movements]; finds Asplenium an unusual case.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Eben Jenks Loomis
Date:  4 Apr 1881
Classmark:  Yale University Library: Manuscripts and Archives (Loomis-Wilder Family Papers (MS 496A) Series 2, Box 6, folder 19)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13107

From Frithiof Holmgren   7 April 1881


Swedish anti-vivisectionists are claiming CD is opposed to animal experiments; Holmgren wishes CD to state his position.

Author:  Frithiof Holmgren
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Apr 1881
Classmark:  DAR 166: 256
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13108

To W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   9 April 1881


About Francis Darwin’s application for election to [Royal] Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  9 Apr 1881
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Darwin: Letters to Thiselton-Dyer, 1873–81: ff. 218–19)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13109

From Gaston de Saporta   10 April 1881


Sends GdeS and A. F. Marion, L’évolution du règne végétal. Les cryptogames [1881].

Author:  Louis Charles Joseph Gaston (Gaston) de Saporta, comte de Saporta
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Apr 1881
Classmark:  DAR 177: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13111

To Fritz Müller   12 April 1881


Earthworm book with printer.

Has sent FM’s observations on paraheliotropism to Nature ["Movement of leaves", Collected papers 2: 228–9].

Plants with differently coloured anthers.

Intends gathering together his notes on "bloom".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  12 Apr 1881
Classmark:  British Library (Loan MS 10 no 51)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13113

To Frithiof Holmgren   [14] April 1881


CD gives his opinion on vivisection with the understanding that the whole letter will be published. Worked for Act of Parliament, but disapproves of the one passed. CD convinced English physiologists do not perform cruel experiments.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Frithiof Holmgren
Date:  [14] Apr 1881
Classmark:  Uppsala University Library (Frithiof Holmgren Collection) & DAR 139.17: 24
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13115

From A. S. Wilson   14 April 1881


Sends his last report on Russian wheat varieties [Gard. Chron. n.s. 15 (1881): 430–2].

Considers which part of grass embryo is the cotyledon.

Author:  Alexander Stephen Wilson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Apr 1881
Classmark:  DAR 181: 117
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13116

To G. J. Romanes   16 April 1881


Discusses concept of intelligence in his Earthworms manuscript.

Remarks on GJR’s work on echinoderms.

Comments on Wilhelm Roux [Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus (1881)].

Discusses animal instincts, citing Fabre’s description of sand-wasps.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George John Romanes
Date:  16 Apr 1881
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.587)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13118

To John Lubbock   16 April [1881?]


Suggests that the pappus of Compositae, when lying on ground, may absorb water which may function in seed germination.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  16 Apr [1881?]
Classmark:  British Library (Add MS 49645: 97-8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13119

From E. L. Zeuschner   16 April 1881


Sends pamphlet showing that magnetism is the fundamental element by which all is created and maintained.

Author:  Ernst L Zeuschner
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Apr 1881
Classmark:  DAR 184: 8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13120

To A. S. Wilson   16 April 1881


Obliged for extract from Gardeners’ Chronicle about Russian wheat. "It is a capital instance of one var. gradually beating out another."

Cannot remember where he put G. Henslow’s note [on the cotyledon of grass embryos].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Stephen Wilson
Date:  16 Apr 1881
Classmark:  DAR 148: 372
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13121

From Alexander Agassiz   16 April 1881


Is mapping coral distribution on the Tortugas reef. His observations on the Florida peninsula suggest that it was built up from the debris of animal remains and was not elevated.

Author:  Alexander Agassiz
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Apr 1881
Classmark:  Agassiz (1913): 281–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13122

From G. J. Romanes   17 April 1881


Looks forward to reading CD’s Earthworms.

Agrees that habits of sand-wasp are determined by natural selection.

Experiment of exposing plants to flashing light gives uncertain result.

Author:  George John Romanes
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Apr 1881
Classmark:  E. D. Romanes 1896, p. 112
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13123

To G. J. Romanes   18 April 1881


Discusses GJR’s experiments on heliotropism in plants; views of Philippe van Tieghem and Julius von Wiesner. Describes his own experiments.

Mentions his letter on vivisection [to Frithiof Holmgren, see 13115] in the Times [18 Apr 1881].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George John Romanes
Date:  18 Apr 1881
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.588)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13124
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