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Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 21 hits

  • … – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and othersby Craig Baxteras
  • quotes from the correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton
  • read the words of the following: Actor 1Asa Gray Actor 2Charles Darwin
  • day archivist, this actor uses the words of Jane Loring Gray, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Hugh Falconer, …
  • in which the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the
  • are described by his widow Jane the final days of Professor Asa Gray, Harvard Botanist. A series of
  • of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa Gray is in his late 70s. JANE
  • threatening of a cold, but he pronounced himselfGRAY: Perfectly comfortable. …
  • however, passed away, and he wrote that evening. GRAY:   2   [Since atheistic
  • for the very citadel of natural theology. JANE GRAY: The next morning he seemed bright and
  • there came a slight shock in the right arm, Grays arm twitches. which seemed, …
  • secret and potentially incendiary ideas. A younger Asa Gray (now in his mid 40s) arrives in
  • you might reasonably expectYours most sincerely Asa Gray. DARWIN16   My dear
  • 25   I send enclosed [a letter for you from Asa Gray], received this morning. I send my own, also, …
  • instructive to me42   Ever most cordially yours, Asa Gray Darwin, after a short
  • run prevail. CERTAIN BENEFICIAL LINES: 1860 Asa Gray presents his argument of Creation
  • see not121   Your cordial friend and true Yankee, Asa Gray. Hookers body language
  • long to see the Yankees well drubbed by us. Do you hear from Asa Gray now? Gray senses a
  • to Hooker with a cringe. DARWIN:   126   Asa Gray is evidently sore about England
  • 149   My dear HookerWhat pleasant letters Asa Gray writes [but] one might as well write to a
  • with profound contempt, says on this subject that Professor Asa Gray could, with the greatest ease, …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa GrayGray was one of Darwins
  • checked by the editors of the Correspondence Project. Gray was born in New York State in 1810
  • Hooker, son of the director of Kew Gardens. Gray and Hooker briefly met Charles Darwin for
  • a dramatisation of the friendship between Darwin and Gray, drawing entirely on their own words from

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 18 hits

  • and assistance with experiments. In January, he wrote to Asa Gray thanking him for somenew cases
  • haddifferent functions’. He continued to write to Gray throughout the year about his quest for
  • time on the problem: ‘the labour is great’, he told Gray ( letter to Asa Gray, 1020 June [1862] ) …
  • By October, Darwin was flagging and declared to Gray: ‘I am utterly routed, beaten, “whippedby
  • by the extent of the sterility of own-form crosses. He told Gray: ‘Taking sexual power as the
  • may be said to be generically distinct’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 14 July [1862] ). The case was so
  • seed. The case clearly excited Darwin, who exclaimed to Gray ( letter to Asa Gray, 9 August [1862] …
  • had enjoyed observing the orchids: he described the work to Gray as ahobby-horsethat had given
  • of the orchids that puzzled him, and was thrilled by Grays observations of North American species. …
  • result of n. selection’. The book was intended to be, as Gray put it, a ‘“flank-movementon the
  • of natural selection through the back door ( letter to Asa Gray, 23[–4] July [1862] ). Moreover, …
  • his opposition to the  Origin  ’ ( letter from Asa Gray, 23 July 1862 ). Henry Walter
  • … ). War abroad. Anxiety at home As usual, Asa Gray took care that Americans should know
  • … & genius you have for these researches’ ( letter from Asa Gray, 18 May 1862 ). In thanking
  • … ‘not a shade of feeling against slavery’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 16 October [1862] ). It was
  • … ‘fearful evil to the whole world’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 16 October [1862] )—appreciated how well
  • hadcome to wish for Peace at any price’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 23[–4] July [1862] ), the couple
  • Richard Owen, one of hischief enemies’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 23[–4] July [1862] ), challenging

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … ( letter from Charles Lyell, 11 March 1863 ). The botanist Asa Gray, Darwins friend in the United
  • Huxleys book would scare them off ( see letter from Asa Gray, 20 April 1863 ). In May, Darwin
  • and letter to  Athenæum , 18 April [1863] ). He told Gray: ‘Under the cloak of a fling at
  • Lyells  amended verdict on the Origin’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 20 April [1863] ). Darwin quoted a
  • 1862 (see  Correspondence  vol. 10). He sent a copy to Asa Gray to review in an American journal, …
  • January [1863] and 31 January [1863] , and letter to Asa Gray, 31 May [1863] ). Asa Gray
  • over the angles of leaves, asking the professional botanists Gray, Hooker, and Daniel Oliver for
  • letter from Daniel Oliver, 17 February 1863 , letter to Asa Gray, 20 April [1863] , letter to
  • wasenough to drive the quietest man mad’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 11 May [1863] ). Hooker and Gray
  • forms that he had started the previous year ( letter to Asa Gray, 4 August [1863] ). The results
  • Darwin concluded: ‘It was beautiful’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 20 April [1863] ). Cross
  • and pistils mature at different times ( see letter to Asa Gray, 11 May [1863] ). The fertility of
  • all its modifications as anything in orchids’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 4 August [1863] ). He acquired
  • they lived not to know anything of them?’ ( letter from Asa Gray, 1 September 1863 ). Gray
  • of which figured prominently in his correspondence with Asa Gray in Cambridge, Massachusetts. At the

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 10 hits

  • out in the United States and in Germany, he expressed to Asa Gray his astonishment at the widespread
  • thinking that it would be nice easy reading.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 22 May [1860] ). …
  • were inexplicable by the theory of creation. Asa Grays statement in his March review that natural
  • solely by explaining an ample lot of facts.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 18 February [1860] ). To those
  • perfected structure as the eye. As Darwin admitted to Lyell, Gray, and others, imagining how
  • caused him greater discomfort. As he readily admitted to Gray: ‘The sight of a feather in a peacock
  • change of form’, namely those of embryology ( letter to Asa Gray, 10 September [1860] ). Only his
  • in letters to his closest confidants Hooker, Lyell, and Gray. Initially he found it curioushow
  • not thoroughly . . . I must be a very bad explainer.' Asa Gray and design in nature
  • Origin  in America by Louis Agassiz and his followers, Grays essays, Darwin believed, could also

Essays & reviews by Asa Gray

Summary

Asa Gray wrote a series of reviews of Darwin’s works for American magazines such as Atlantic Monthly and The Nation. These gave publicity to Darwin’s theories, and they also contained extended reflections on the possible implications of these theories…

Matches: 2 hits

  • Asa Gray wrote a series of reviews of Darwins works for American magazines
  • to be republished in England as a pamphlet. A collection of Grays reviews was published in book

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 10 hits

  • Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and
  • as Emma Darwin helped Charles with his correspondence, Jane Gray often acted as a secretary for her
  • 40 ladies  and a few gentlemen’ (letter to Jane Gray from George Bentham, 10 March 1852. Archives
  • about the behaviour of her dog (letter from J. L. Gray, 14 February 1870 ), she also passed on
  • and Animals  (1872) Darwin thankedProfessor and Mrs. Asa Grayfor attending tosome points in
  • preoccupations. In their letter to Darwin from Egypt, Jane Gray wrote: I enclose the few
  • women only the up & down wrinkles— (letter from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May
  • men: Pray give our very kind remembrances to Mrs. Gray. I know that she likes to hear men
  • I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games. (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876 ) …
  • sent back with them (letter from Emma Darwin to Jane Gray, 28 October 1871. Archives of the Gray

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, taking as their point of …
  • … force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 July [1860] Darwin writes to …
  • … for the attention now given to the subject. He poses Gray a question on design in nature, as he is …
  • … an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 11 Dec [1861] Darwin writes to …
  • … white flag than to fire my usual long-range shot”. He asks Gray some questions about design. …
  • … gives an “excellent idea of Pangenesis”. He talks about Gray giving him a good slap at his …
  • … theist and evolutionist, giving the examples of Kingsley and Asa Gray. As regards his own views, his …

Review: The Origin of Species

Summary

- by Asa Gray THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION (American Journal of Science and Arts, March, 1860) This book is already exciting much attention. Two American editions are announced, through which it will become familiar to many…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … - by Asa Gray THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 10 hits

  • … … poor creature, has won only 2490 games’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876 ). Francis Darwin, …
  • … of work’ left in him for ‘new matter’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). The preparation of the …
  • … evidence for the ‘advantages of crossing’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). Revising Orchids …
  • … and sympathised with his close friends Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray, whose situations often …
  • … you suffer largely in the same way’, Darwin wrote to Gray on 28 January . On 14 November, Hooker …
  • … my horrid bad style into intelligible English’, he told Asa Gray on 28 October . …
  • … are not readable, & the 6 last very dull’, he warned Asa Gray on 28 October , when sending …
  • … lively reading for one so poor at figures as I am’, Gray conceded on 12 November , although he …
  • … compare size of pollen grains & state of stigma’, he told Gray on 4 December. Darwin also …
  • … than the more widely used ‘heterostyle’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 20 December 1876 ). Darwin …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

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  • the networks of others, such as Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray, who were at leading scientific
  • contact. His correspondence with Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray illustrates how close personal ties
  • D. Hooker. The second is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray. Darwin and Hooker
  • species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674Darwin, C. R. …
  • in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin writes
  • Primula . Letter 4611Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 13 Sept [1864] Darwin sends

Darwiniana – Preface

Summary

—by Asa Gray These papers are now collected at the request of friends and correspondents, who think that they may be useful; and two new essays are added. Most of the articles were written as occasion called for them within the past sixteen years, and…

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  • … —by Asa Gray These papers are now collected at the request of friends and …

Essay: Evolution & theology

Summary

—by Asa Gray EVOLUTION AND THEOLOGY The Nation, January 15, 1874 The attitude of theologians toward doctrines of evolution, from the nebular hypothesis down to ‘Darwinism,’ is no less worthy of consideration, and hardly less diverse, than that of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … —by Asa Gray EVOLUTION AND THEOLOGY The Nation, January 15, 1874 …

Essay: Design versus necessity

Summary

—by Asa Gray DESIGN VERSUS NECESSITY.—DISCUSSION BETWEEN TWO READERS OF DARWIN’S TREATISE ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES, UPON ITS NATURAL THEOLOGY. (American Journal of Science and Arts, September, 1860) D.T.—Is Darwin’s theory atheistic or pantheistic…

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  • … —by Asa Gray DESIGN VERSUS NECESSITY.—DISCUSSION BETWEEN TWO READERS OF …

Essay: What is Darwinism?

Summary

—by Asa Gray WHAT IS DARWINISM? The Nation, May 28, 1874 The question which Dr. Hodge asks he promptly and decisively answers: ‘What is Darwinism? it is atheism.’ Leaving aside all subsidiary and incidental matters, let us consider–1. What the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … —by Asa Gray WHAT IS DARWINISM? The Nation, May 28, 1874 The …

Essay: Natural selection & natural theology

Summary

—by Asa Gray NATURAL SELECTION NOT INCONSISTENT WITH NATURAL THEOLOGY. Atlantic Monthly for July, August, and October, 1860, reprinted in 1861. I Novelties are enticing to most people; to us they are simply annoying. We cling to a long-accepted…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … —by Asa Gray NATURAL SELECTION NOT INCONSISTENT WITH NATURAL THEOLOGY. …

Essay: Evolutionary teleology

Summary

—by Asa Gray EVOLUTIONARY TELEOLOGY When Cuvier spoke of the ‘combination of organs in such order that they may be in consistence with the part which the animal has to play in Nature,’ his opponent, Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, rejoined, ‘I know nothing of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … —by Asa Gray EVOLUTIONARY TELEOLOGY When Cuvier spoke of the ‘ …

Darwin in letters, 1861: Gaining allies

Summary

The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. He had weathered the storm that followed the publication of Origin, and felt cautiously optimistic about the ultimate acceptance of his ideas. The letters from this year provide an…

Matches: 8 hits

  • with natural theology. He made arrangements with his friend Asa Gray to reprint and distribute in
  • me & Natural Selection, right good service’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 267 Februrary [1861] ). …
  • III). However, Darwin himself remained unconvinced by Grays suggestion that providence may have
  • intercrossing between distinct individuals. He told Gray that such cases could perhapsthrow some
  • profoundly interesting’, Darwin told the Harvard botanist Asa Gray on 5 June, and added, despite the
  • or heard a soul who is not with the North’. Darwin and Gray both unreservedly supported the northern
  • views and sentiments are perfectly satisfactory to me’, Gray wrote to Darwin on 31 December. …
  • greatest curse on Earth Slavery abolished’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 5 June [1861] ): Some

Schools Gallery: Using Darwin’s letters in the classroom

Summary

English| History| Science  English Pupils in Cumbria lead the way Year 9 English pupils at Ulverston Victoria High School spent several weeks studying Darwin’s letters, including comparing sections from Darwin’s ‘Voyage of the Beagle’ to letters…

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  • … approach? Letter 1674 - Charles Darwin to Asa Gray, 25 Apr 1855 Letter …
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