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St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 19 hits

  • In 1874, the Catholic zoologist St George Jackson Mivart caused Darwin and his son George serious
  • resolved until early 1875, and, even then, not to Darwins complete satisfaction. The story sheds
  • 98114, and Dawson 2007, pp. 7781. George Darwin's article on marriage In August
  • to liberty of marriagein the Contemporary Review (G. H. Darwin 1873b). In this article, George
  • and others granted divorce on very slight causes. Mivart's review Georges
  • of its created image, the mind of man’ (p. 76). Mivarts argument did not win general assent. …
  • throughout the paper. The following quotations from Mivarts paper mention Darwin and George: …
  • in the next issue of the Quarterly ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 29 July 1874 ). Darwin hastily
  • Murray would be likely to wish to circulate ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ). Darwin
  • he might be thought to endorse them ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 5 August 1874 ). He sent a second
  • correctly, the reviewers identity: St George Jackson Mivart. George took on board Darwins comments
  • letter appeared, followed by an anonymous rejoinder from Mivart ( Quarterly Review 137 (1874): …
  • Quarterly Review including these letters, remarking that Mivarts rejoinder wasa fine specimen
  • protégé, and Huxleys reaction was savage ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [6 December 1874] ). Hooker
  • admit his authorship of the attack on George ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December 1874 ). Huxley
  • attacked a friend of mine.’ ( Enclosure to letter from J. D. Hooker, 21 December 1874 .) A reply
  • sufficiently plain that I did not intend to attribute to Mr G. Darwin any personal slur but only an
  • an approving strainbecause a careful consideration of Mr G. Darwins paper has convinced me that
  • from John Tyndall, 28 December 1874 , and letter from J. D. Hooker, 29 December 1874 ). …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 22 hits

  • …   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the emotions
  • and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • … , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new work, …
  • … , shortly after correcting the proofs, and Darwins concern for the consolidation of his legacy is
  • editions were costly to incorporate, and despite Darwins best efforts, set the final price at 7 s. …
  • as I can make it’, he wrote to the translator ( letter to JJMoulinié, 23 September 1872 ). He
  • let alone the fifthPrinting of the proofs of Moulinié’s translation of the fifth English edition
  • This complex operation, combined with Moulinié’s increasingly poor health, led to yet further delay, …
  • … ). To persuade his US publisher, Appletons, to bring out the new edition in the United
  • he wrote to the comparative anatomist St George Jackson Mivart ( letter to St GJMivart,  11
  • to defend himself in the sixth edition were those made by Mivart himself. In a new chapter on
  • Darwin refuted point by point assertions published by Mivart at the beginning of the previous year
  • persuasiveness of his arguments: ‘I think your answer to Mivart, on initial stages of modification
  • you have greatly misrepresented my views Although Mivart was among those who wrote in
  • letters saw relations between them irretrievably break down. Mivarts book had been followed by a
  • had rallied to his defence, and along with his good wishes Mivart enclosed a copy of an article
  • as I am made to appear’, complained Darwin ( letter to St GJMivart, 5 January 1872 ). Piqued, …
  • … `fundamental intellectual errors’ ( letter from St GJMivart, 6 January 1872 ). Darwin
  • to think he felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St GJMivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite
  • if only `in another world’ ( letter from St GJMivart,  10 January 1872 ).  Darwin, determined
  • …  but asked Mivart not to acknowledge it ( letter to St GJMivart, 11 January [1872] ). 'I
  • selection is somewhat under a cloud’, he wrote to JETaylor on 13 January , and he complained

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 26 hits

  • over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second half of
  • been the naturalist and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a
  • The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwins cousin, William Darwin Fox, to
  • led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for ones body growing old there is no help for it, & I
  • The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to London, staying at his brother Erasmuss house.  …
  • August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that Clarks dietary treatment woulddo wonders’, but as
  • hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin
  • in London, his son George organised a séance at Erasmuss house. The event was led by the medium
  • rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] ). …
  • alloweda spirit séanceat his home ( letter from T. G. Appleton, 2 April 1874 ). Back
  • letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 January 1874 , and
  • for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D. Dana, 21 July 1874 ); however, he did
  • conciseness & clearness of your thought’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 20 April 1874 ). …
  • the spread of various mental and physical disorders (G. H. Darwin 1873b). In July 1874, an anonymous
  • population’. The review was by St George Jackson Mivart, one of the most severe critics of
  • usually generous Darwin by his previous anonymous attacks ([Mivart] 1869; 1871c). In his review, …
  • … ‘nonsenseand as displayingamazing ignorance’ ([Mivart] 1874b, p. 45). He also circuitously
  • Georges article as a defence of such immoral practices, Mivart was indirectly accusing Darwin
  • Darwins immediate circle, a bitter dispute ensued over Mivarts misrepresentation of Georges views
  • over thescurrilous libelon his son ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [27 July 1874] ).  George, …
  • scurrilous accusation of [a] lying scoundrel’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ). He
  • with Murray on the outcome ( enclosure to letter from G. H. Darwin, 6 [August] 1874 ): …
  • direct to the Editor & it had been refused’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, [6 or 7 August 1874] ) …
  • Mivart (see  Correspondence  vol. 20, letter to St G. J. Mivart, 11 January [1872] ). To Darwin
  • whether he was the author of the review ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December 1874 ). Huxley
  • Mivart had written the article ( enclosure to letter from J. D. Hooker, 21 December 1874 ). Huxley

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 17 hits

  • to humans from Alfred Russel Wallace and St George Jackson Mivart, and heated debates sparked by
  • writer and philanthropist Frances Power Cobbe. At Cobbes suggestion, Darwin read some of Immanuel
  • … ). Humans as animals: ears Despite Cobbes plea, most of Darwins scientific attention
  • his statue of Puck, the mischievous fairy in Shakespeares  A midsummer nights dreamDarwin
  • he described aspurgatorymade lighter by Woolnerswonderfully pleasantmanner, named the
  • for the drawing ( Correspondence  vol. 16, letter to J. D. Hooker, 26 November [1868] ; this
  • to H. W. Bates, [22 May 1870] ). St George Jackson Mivart Another set of objections
  • for by an underlying design. Darwin commented on Mivarts essay in a letter to William Henry
  • to W. H. Flower, 25 March [1870] ). In his letters to Mivart, Darwin remained cordial and
  • … & valuable labours on the Primates’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 April [1870] ). He also
  • an Ape differs from a lump of granite’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 22 April 1870 ). …
  • whatever may have been hisorigin” ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 25 April 1870 ). In his
  • than I could a ball at Buckingham Palace’ ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 30 June [1870] ). …
  • persons long married grow like each other’ ( letter from J. J. Weir, 17 March 1870 ). …
  • in Bastians solutions of the same kind’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 July [1870] ). Bastians
  • to be thus killed by a man of 86’  ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 25 May [1870] ). On learning of this, …
  • to ride the same horse that had thrown him (letter from G. H. Darwin to H. E. Darwin, [212

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 23 hits

  • Plants always held an important place in Darwins theorising about species, and botanical research
  • a long-running dispute with the zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin
  • In January, the protracted dispute with Mivart came to a close. The final chapter of the controversy
  • and assistance from his family, he sent a curt note to Mivart on 12 January , breaking off all
  • friends, Hooker and Thomas Henry Huxley. Because Mivart was a distinguished zoologist, a
  • Huxley chose journalism, depicting the anonymous reviewer (Mivart) as a blind antagonist ofall
  • his position as president of the Royal Society from spurning Mivart in public. ‘Without cutting him
  • Murray, the publisher of the Quarterly Review , in which Mivarts anonymous essay had appeared. …
  • … … Poor Murray shuddered again & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin
  • feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwins ire was not fully spent, however, for he
  • … ‘I know positively that this article was written by Mr Mivart & I wish to take every opportunity
  • be.’   The vivisection question Just as the Mivart affair was laid to rest, another
  • The vivisection issue was a delicate one within Darwins family, and he tried to balance his concern
  • paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbes memorial inflammatory and unfair in its
  • on 12 May, one week after a rival bill based on Cobbes memorial had been read in the House of Lords
  • on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Kleins testimony from Huxley on 30 October 1875 : …
  • medicine in London. Klein had assisted in some of Darwins botanical research and had visited Down
  • …   Poisons, plants, and print-runs Darwins keen interest in the progress of physiology
  • of protoplasm. He added the details of Brunton and Fayrers experiments to Insectivorous plants , …
  • red half has become wholly white’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [before 4 November 1874] ).   …
  • Review . Having just emerged from the controversy with Mivart over his paper on cousin marriage, he
  • of a review of William Dwight Whitneys work on language (G. H. Darwin 1874c). George had taken the
  • reviews of Darwins work, including a defence against Mivart that Darwin had reprinted in Britain. …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 23 hits

  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of thehigherfaculties
  • brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwins eldest daughter Henrietta was married in
  • human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwins aim of  showing kinship with animals at
  • Hooker suggested one of the reasons behind the books popularity: ‘I hear that Ladies think it
  • about it, which no doubt promotes the sale’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ). The
  • Correspondence vol. 19Appendix IV). Four of Darwins five sons received a copy, and his daughter
  • inlucid vigorous style’, as well as for the booksarrangment, not to mention still more
  • The geologist William Boyd Dawkins remarked on Darwins booksreception amongstartisans and mill
  • … & menstruation coming out of the primary fact that ones n th . ancestor lived between tide
  • letter from Arthur Nicols, 7 March 1871 ; letter from B. J. Sulivan, 11 March 1871 ; letter
  • A number of correspondents took issue with Darwins evolutionary explanation of thehigher’ …
  • a high aesthetic appreciation of beauty ( letter from E. J. Pfeiffer, [before 26 April 1871] ). …
  • and beetles to  Descent , could not extend Darwins evolutionary theory beyond mansbodily frame
  • a good way ahead of you, as far as this goes’ ( letter to J. B. Innes, 29 May [1871] ). On
  • vexing critic for Darwin was the zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. An expert on primates and a
  • to explain various animal structures and homologies. Mivarts views were published in expanded form
  • that his own views on evolution had been misrepresented. Mivart had ignored his continued reliance
  • in his assertions. Darwin pressed this last point with Mivart, insisting that he had hunted through
  • only themost guarded expressions’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 January [1871] ). …
  • and theirirreligious deductions’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 24 January 1871 ). The men did
  • son Francis on 28 February . However, later in the year, Mivart wrote an even more hostile article
  • religious bigotry is at the root of it’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 16 September [1871] ). …

Darwin's 1874 letters go online

Summary

The full transcripts and footnotes of over 600 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1874 are published online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1874 through his letters and see a full list of the letters. The 1874 letters…

Matches: 11 hits

  • online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1874 through his letters
  • offence that the Catholic zoologist St George Jackson Mivart caused Darwin and his son George. …
  • of [a] lying scoundrel.—  ( Letter to GHDarwin, 1 August [1874] ) The
  • about how Darwin and his family and friends dealt with Mivart's accusations .   Here
  • of 1874. He had a clear idea of the shape of his lifes work, and was aware that he was unlikely to
  • of  books in relation to the Origin, of  which I have the M.S. half  completed; but I have started
  • with the second by his son George, now a fellow of Christs College, Cambridge. At the same time he
  • five times more time than the positive  ( Letter to JDHooker, 30 August [1874] ) …
  • hardly ever enjoyed a day more in my life than this days work  ( Letter to DFNevill, 18
  • directors, fearing that Horace shared the Darwin familys ill health and hoping to protect him from
  • Amy Ruck and came to live in Down village as Darwins secretary. I declare I wonder

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 22 hits

  • Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emmas backgammon games. ‘I have won, hurrah, …
  • Lodge with his wife, Amy, had settled in as his fathers botanical assistant, and their close
  • concussion from a riding accident, and George Darwins ill-health grew worse, echoing Darwins own
  • of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amys child expected in September. Their joy
  • to William on 11 September just hours after Amys death. For once, the labour of checking proofs
  • dimorphic and trimorphic plants in new ways. New Year's resolutions Darwin began
  • Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwins three volumes of the geology of the
  • not even to look at a single proof ’. Perhaps Caruss meticulous correction of errors in the German
  • blundering’, he cheerfully observed to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) …
  • made by the comparative anatomist St George Jackson Mivart in his Lessons from nature that
  • pain ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 June 1876 ). Although Mivart had long been a severe critic, …
  • heartfelt thanks to Wallace for his critical review of Mivarts Lessons from nature . ... …
  • of blackballing so distinguished a zoologist ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 29 January 1876 ). Both
  • results in this years experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [ c . 19 March 1876] ). A less
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica the previous year ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [after 4 September 1876] ). …
  • by the mutual pressure of very young buds’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 21 June [1876] ). Darwin
  • theawful jobof informing the author ( letter to G. G. Stokes, 21 April [1876] ). Darwin could
  • paper wasnot worthy of being read ever’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 28 January 1876 ). Darwin
  • … ‘all I can say is do not commit suicide’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [4 June 1876] ). By midsummer, …
  • a set of sons I have, all doing wonders.’ ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 July [1876]. ) A
  • Hildebrand, 6 December 1876 , and letter from F. J. Cohn, 31 December 1876 ). To Darwins
  • as this, together with Wallaces reasoned disagreements, Mivarts attacks, and other objections, may

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … Abbot, F. E. (17) Abernethy, J. W. (1) …
  • … Allen, Grant (13) Allen, J. A. (b) (1) …
  • … Allen, Thomas (2) Allman, G. J. (4) …
  • … Isaac (17) Andersson, C. J. (3) …
  • … Athenæum (11) Atkin, J. R. (1) …
  • … Ayres, W. P. (1) B. J. Edwards & Co. (1) …
  • … H. F. (1) Billings, J. S. (2) …
  • … Mitford, A. B. (1) Mivart, S. G. J. (38) …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of a performance is available). This time Terry’s task was to bring some carefully selected …
  • … a long and full day at the microphone, resulting in Terry’s interpretations of 23 letters.  A …
  • … written on 9 January 1882 , only shortly before Darwin’s death, about the equality of women and …
  • …  particular letters. How should one read Darwin’s politely worded rebuke to St G. J. Mivart ( 21 …
  • … to his ‘confessing a murder’ in his famous  letter to J. D. Hooker, in which he admitted that he no …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … in the blind Bowker, J.H. [10 Dec 1867] …
  • … Fuegians Brooke, C.A.J. 30 Nov 1870 …
  • … Dyaks Brooke, C.A.J. 30 April 1871 …
  • … forwarded by Muller Haast, J.F.J. von 12 …
  • … he forwards it to Haast, J.F.J. von 4 Dec …
  • … Zealand includes enclosure from Revd J Stack, Maori Missionary Kaipoi …
  • … Lake Wellington, Australia letter to F.J.H. von Mueller nodding, …
  • … of baby's tears Hooker, J.D. 5 Sept …
  • … bending head forward Mivart, G.J. 26 Jan …
  • … expressions Rothrock, J.T. 31 March 1867 …
  • … Aborigines Speedy, J. 29 Sept 1868 …
  • … New Zealand) forwarded to CD by J.F.J. von Haast Maoris …
  • … respond to query Weale, J.P.M. 7 July 1867 …
  • … Kafir, Hottentot Weale, J.P.M. [10 Dec …
  • … Kaffirs Weale, J.P.M. 23 Oct 1868 …
  • … Kafir girls Weale, J.P.M. [25 May 1870] …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a …
  • … - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, responds to Darwin’s …
  • … February 1867] Mary Barber responds to Darwin’s queries about Expression from …
  • … of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • … and offers to observe birds, insects or plants on Darwin’s behalf. Letter 8683 - …
  • … passes on brief observations of an angry pig and her niece’s ears. Letter 8701 - …
  • … wife of naturalist John Lubbock, responds to Darwin’s request that she make observations of her pet …
  • … Thereza Story-Maskelyne responds to a letter of Darwin’s which was published in Nature with some …
  • … Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] Darwin thanks Hooker for …
  • … and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • … in a marble tablet”. Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John …
  • … Men: Letter 385  - Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] …
  • … Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February 1849] …
  • … Men: Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and …
  • … to feed to them. Letter 2069  - Tenant, J. to Darwin, [31 March 1857] James …
  • … University of Bonn. Letter 6046  - Weir, J. J. to Darwin, [24 March 1868] …
letter