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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • … South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • … a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • … Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 …
  • … the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 …
  • … Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris …
  • … on holiday in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • … any way he can. Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] …
  • … trenches”. Letter 9606 - Harrison, L. C. to Darwin, [22 August 1874] …
  • … on information and fieldwork results from her father, Josiah Wedgwood II. The fieldwork was …
  • … Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris …
  • … the future. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] Darwin …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … dei Lincei (1) Acland, C. L. (1) …
  • … James (1) Anderson, James (c) (3) …
  • … Vienna (1) Appleton, C. E. C. B. (2) …
  • … Austin, A. D. (2) Austin, C. F. (1) …
  • … Charles (10) Babington, C. C. (20) …
  • … Bakewell, R. H. (1) Balch, C. L. (3) …
  • … Batalin, A. F. (2) Bate, C. S. (21) …
  • … Behrens, Wilhelm (4) Beke, C. T. (1) …
  • … Édouard van (5) Bennet, C. A. (b) (1) …
  • … Edouard (3) Bergstedt, C. F. (1) …
  • … Urgeschichte (1) Bernays, C. L. (2) …
  • … Bertrand, Joseph (2) Bessey, C. E. (1) …
  • … William (29) Brace, C. L. (5) …
  • … J. S. (66) Burg, C. L. van der (2) …
  • … Wedderburn, David (1) Wedgwood, C. S. (8) …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … . Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] Darwin hints …
  • … publicly as a science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May …
  • … Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] Darwin asks …
  • … to state that the information was “received through Sir C. Lyell” or received from “Miss. B”. …
  • … final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] …
  • … the public humming” at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …
  • … turf-based worm castings . Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … and the heavy use of their arms and legs ( letter from C. L. Bernays, 25 February 1871 ). Samples …
  • … is a thing which I sh d  feel very proud of, if anyone c d . say of me.’ After the publication …
  • … was achieved through ‘the medium of opinion, positive law &c’, and transmitted by culture, not …
  • … in the world except. laughing. crying grinning pouting &c. &c’, he wrote to Hooker on 21 …
  • … home, Leith Hill Place in Surrey, and CD’s niece Lucy Wedgwood collected and weighed the dried …
  • … raise annually on an acre of land at 16 tons (letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [20 November 1871] ). …

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … to finish my note on this subject’  ( letter from F. C. Donders, 17 May 1870 ). Human …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of her sex”. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] Darwin …
  • … patience. Letter 13607 – Darwin to Kennard, C. A., [9 January 1882] Darwin …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … in Expression . Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] …
  • … in her garden. Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] …
  • … Variation . Letter 6126 - Binstead, C. H. to Darwin, [17 April 1868] …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 7 hits

  • remained unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November 1872 ). …
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • gift, although he doubted he would ever use it ( letter to CLDodgson, 10 December 1872 ). …
  • to contain wormcasts from India. Darwins niece Lucy Wedgwood, who had started her observations the
  • to which any scientific man can look’ ( letter to FCDonders, 29 April [1872] ). …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … trowsers. Emma one morning put on an unconspicuous bonnet of C. Langton,[52] W. instantly observed …
  • … she added an s to the end of every word “Ettis & Bettis &c afterwards all the ws were turned …
  • … goed dawn to the willage”. Fish for Smith. Kaw for cow. &c. Lenny[61] 2 years old speaks …
  • … “But I could not help it”— I said “Lenny you c d  help it, don’t say that”. “I could not help it a …
  • … in red coat & white breeches jumping over the Hedges &c &c. I said “Oh Lenny you can …
  • … I once did see  really ,” “Once I saw a steam Engine &c &c”— so that he thought one true …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … by Darwin from a suggestion made by his uncle, Josiah Wedgwood II, during one of Darwin’s visits to …
  • … beetles were described by F. W. Hope, G. R. Waterhouse, and C. C. Babington; the Chalcididae by …
  • … all crosses between all domestic birds & animals dogs, cats &c &c very valuable—' …
  • … on literature in this field and on friends like Henslow, T. C. Eyton, and W. D. Fox, who were …
  • … 1961, p. 53). Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His hopes and …
  • … to how one ought to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). These are not …
  • … relation of fossil with recent. the fabric falls!' (Notebook C : 76–7). …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 5 hits

  • day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on
  • Prof. or poor man; outskirts of London, some small Square &c:— & work as well as I can
  • Anxiety & responsibilityless money for books &cif many children forced to gain ones
  • … ‘¶’. [9] ‘not’  interl . [10] ‘C’  over illeg . [11] ‘I’  over  ‘l’. …
  • … [12 November 1838], informing Lyell that his cousin Emma Wedgwood had accepted him (on 11 November), …

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not precise …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a …
  • … in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • … whether at the ‘close of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before …
  • … details of an Australian variety of sundew ( letter from T. C. Copland, 23 June 1874 ). …
  • … head that M r  Spencer’s terms of equilibration &c always bother me & make everything less …
  • … French edition was published in January 1875 ( letter from C.-F. Reinwald , 4 February 1874 ). …
  • … journey on board the Beagle) in December ( letter from C.-F. Reinwald , 10 December 1874 ). Samuel …

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … it comes in time to be admitted as real.’ ( letter to C. J. F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] ). This …
  • … Several correspondents, such as his cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood and Heinrich Georg Bronn, expressed …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … garden, taking notes by dictation. His niece Lucy Caroline Wedgwood sent observations of  …
  • … but Lyell says when I read his discussion in the Elements [C. Lyell 1865] I shall recant for fifth …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … Darwin and Hooker Letter 714 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [13 or 20 Nov 1843] …
  • … Hooker’s thoughts. Letter 729 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • … confessing a murder”. Letter 736 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844] …
  • … Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 25 Apr [1855] Darwin …
  • … species. Letter 1685 — Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray recalled …
  • … flora in the USA. Letter 2125 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin …
  • … information exchange. Letter 1202 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • … name. Letter 1220 — Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 3 Feb 1849 In this gossipy …
  • … species descriptions. Letter 1260 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 12 Oct 1849 …
  • … Letter 1319 — Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 6 & 7 Apr 1850 Hooker apologises for the …
  • … visit with Falconer. Letter 1339 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 13 June [1850] …
  • … voyage and afterwards. Letter 152 — Darwin, C. R. to Henslow, J. S., 3 Dec [1831] …
  • … me”. Letter 196 — Henslow, J. S. to Darwin, C. R., 15 & 21 Jan [1833] Henslow …
  • … Letter 249 — Henslow, J. S. to Darwin, C. R., 22 July 1834 Henslow notes that Darwin’s cargo …
  • … and mutual friends. Letter 251 — Darwin, C. R. to Henslow, J. S., 24 July & 28 Oct …
  • … are sent to Henslow. Letter 272 — Darwin, C. R. to Henslow, J. S., [10–13] Mar 1835 …
  • … cross the Cordilleras. Letter 1189 — Darwin, C. R. to Henslow, J. S., 2 July [1848] …
  • … Darwin and Lubbock Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] …
  • … passion for entomology. Letter 1720 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 19 [July 1855] …
  • … Darwin and Müller Letter 5457 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 23 Mar 1867 …
  • … of Lopezia miniata . Letter 5471 — Darwin, C. R. to Müller, H. L. H., 29 Mar [1867] …
  • … brother. Letter 5481 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr [1867] Müller …
  • … grow in Westphalia. Letter 5657 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 23 Oct 1867 …
  • … dipteran species. Letter 5770 — Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., Jan [1868] …
  • … list [missing] of birds in which he is interested. L etter 1788 — Darwin, C. R. to …
  • … . Letter 4260a — Darwin, C. R. to Becker, L. E., 2 Aug [1863] Darwin thanks Lydia …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … … inheritance, reversion, effects of use & disuse &c’, and which he intended to publish in …
  • … He wrote to Hooker, ‘I doubt whether you or I or any one c d  do any good in healing this breach. …
  • … Correspondence vol. 13, CD’s ‘Journal’, Appendix I). Wedgwood and Darwin relatives visited Down …
  • … ‘As for your thinking that you do not deserve the C[opley] Medal,’ he rebuked Hooker, ‘that I …
  • … I have not heart to write— GoodBye | My dear old man | C. Darwin.’ …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C ( Notebooks , pp. 31928). In 1839, …
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • de la Folie des Animaux de ses Rapports avec celle de lHomme,” by Dr. Pierquin, published in Paris
  • …  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. Said to be good by D r  L. Lindsay 5 [DAR *119: 1v.] …
  • Cuvier 1822] read Flourens Edit [Flourens 1845] read L. Jenyns paper on Annals of Nat. Hist. …
  • … [DAR *119: 2v.] Whites regular gradation in man [C. White 1799] Lindleys
  • 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian
  • Hist. genérale et Particulière des Anomalies de lorganization des hommes & des Animaux by Isid. …
  • in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on Geog. distrib: of Brit: …
  • Wiegman has pub. German pamphlet on crossing oats &c [Wiegmann 1828] Horticultural
  • in Library of Hort. Soc. [DAR *119:5v.] M c .Neil 16  has written good article
  • des trois Regnes de la nature. Paris. 6: folio par Céran de Lemonier. Bailliere [Céran-Lemonnier
  • of the Agricultural Association meeting at Oxford. paper by L d  Spencer on gestation of animals
  • on the Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 183940] 24 Flourens
  • Histoire Générale et particulière des anomalies de lorganisation chez lhomme et les animaux, …
  • exposées succinctement et dans un ordre analytique, avec lindication de leurs genres, par M. …
  • 1825] Mémoire sur la Conformité Organique dans lechelle animale, par A. Dugés, 4to. avec 6
  • of birds of GenevaMem. de la Soc. Genev. Tom II p. 29 [L. A. Necker 1823] read Lindleys
  • S. Bushnan. Longman. 5 s  [Bushnan 1837]—dedicated to L d . Brougm. 26  merely advertisement
  • de Physique [ Journal de Physique, de Chimie, et de   l'Histoire Naturelle ] Art. …
  • variation by  Blaine .— & on coursingcock-fighting &c. Also Encyclop. of Agriculture by
  • … (Liebig 1851). 50  Probably Elizabeth Wedgwood. 51  This note is a
letter