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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … child of God" (1) Abberley, John (1) …
  • … Adams, A. L. (1) Addison, John (1) …
  • … Allen, J. A. (b) (1) Allen, John (1) …
  • … Balfour, J. H. (7) Ball, John (5) …
  • … Becher, A. B. (1) Beck, John (2) …
  • … Beckhard, Martin (1) Beddoe, John (3) …
  • … C. H. (8) Blackwall, John (4) …
  • … J. A. H. de (11) Bostock, John (1) …
  • … Bridgman, W. K. (3) Brigg, John (1) …
  • … Busch, Otto (1) Bush, John (3) Busk, …
  • … Caton, J. D. (9) Cattell, John (3) …
  • … the Exchequer (1) Chapman, John (4) …
  • … Coe, Henry (6) Coghlan, John (2) …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 25 hits

  • during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a
  • published in 1842 ( Correspondence  vol. 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873
  • and finally borrowed one from Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , …
  • Quarterly Review  discussing works on primitive man by John Lubbock and Edward Burnett Tylor. It
  • of anonymous reviews. Its proprietor was none other than John Murray, Darwins publisher. So
  • to review me in a hostile spirit’ ( letter to John Murray, 11 August 1874 ). Darwin was
  • number of the Review & in the same type’  ( letter from John Murray, 12 August 1874 ). George
  • anonymous reviews. While staying with Hooker over Christmas, John Tyndall, professor at and
  • asthe natural outflow of his character’ ( letter from John Tyndall, 28 December 1874 ). …
  • to purchase the wooded land, which he had been renting from John Lubbock, led to a straining of
  • the sale was agreed in April for £300 ( letter from John Lubbock, 2 April 1874 ), a high price
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon Sanderson sent the results
  • of other insect-eating plants. The surgeon and botanist John Ralfs sent  Utricularia  from
  • in order to work on its difficult structures ( letter to John Ralfs, 13 July [1874] ). The
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • details of an Australian variety of sundew ( letter from T. C. Copland, 23 June 1874 ). …
  • a printed appeal for funds, raising £860 ( Circular to John Lubbock, P. L. Sclater, Charles Lyell, …
  • from E. A. Darwin, 17 [March 1874] ). He tried to persuade John Murray to publish a second edition
  • authority on marriage customs in  Descent  ( see letter John Murray, 9 May [1874] ). He
  • for Darwins last years. The young physiologist George John Romanes wrote a long letter to Herbert
  • head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration &c always bother me & make everything less
  • established by Michael Foster. He then studied under John Scott Burdon Sanderson at University
  • August in Belfast, several papers featured Darwins work. John Tyndall asked Darwin to glance over
  • seems to me excellent, & as clear as light’ ( letter to John Tyndall, 12 August [1874] ). …

Instinct and the Evolution of Mind

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Slave-making ants For Darwin, slave-making ants were a powerful example of the force of instinct. He used the case of the ant Formica sanguinea in the On the Origin of Species to show how instinct operates—how…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Darwin, Charles. On the Origin of Species . 1859. London: John Murray. (See: Chapter 7 “Instinct” …
  • … Evolution of Mind Letter 2226 —Frederick Smith to Darwin, 26 Feb 1858 In …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … A Volume on the Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 1839–40] 24 …
  • … [Lindley 1840]— Chapter on Races improvement of &c &c important I should think …
  • … to be Poor Sir. J. Edwards Botanical Tour [?J. E. Smith 1793] Fabricius (very old) has …
  • … of Soul. amongst Ancients [Toland 1704] Adam Smith Moral Sentiments [A. Smith 1759] …
  • … on Aurochs [Weissenborn 1838] Smiths grammar [J. E. Smith 1821] & introduct of Botany [J. …
  • … The Emigrant, Head [F. B. Head 1846] St. John’s Highlands [C. W. G. Saint John 1846] …
  • … ed. 1834] read Vol. (2 d ) on Dogs [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6] …
  • … B.M. 6. 6. Black Edin. Longman [Ramsay 1848] St. John’s Nat. Hist. of Sutherlanshire, Murray …
  • … Hist. of own time [Burnet 1724–34] Sidney Smith Lectures 49  [Plymley 1808] Sleemans …
  • … Liebigs Lectures on Chemistry [Liebig 1851]. Sir John Davies. China during the War and Peace …
  • … d . Series. vol 3. p. 1 to 312 30 th  Colquhoun (John) The Moor & the Loch [Colquhoun …
  • … Buffon [Milne-Edwards 1834–40]. March 5 th  St. John’s Highlands [Saint John 1846] 8 …
  • … Tone Autobiography [Tone 1826] very amusing March 10 John Galt Autobiography [Galt 1833] poor …
  • … 1848] Madam Malguet [Torrens] 1848] —— Lives of John & Alex. Belthune [?Bethune 1840 and …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and amphibians, while Roland Trimen in South Africa and John Jenner Weir in London sent more …
  • … and broadening the forums in which Darwinism was discussed. John Murray brought out the first issue …
  • … that to me would have been a pleasing sight’ ( letter to John Murray, [after 18 September 1869] ). …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … what he called ‘ this difficult order ’. He wrote to John Edward Gray to request permission to …
  • … rather reflective letter to his former professor and friend, John Stevens Henslow, musing about the …
  • … Copenhagen University and to ask whether Johannes Japetus Smith Streenstrup, professor of zoology …
  • … him to be wary of multiplying species; his botany professor John Stevens Henslow had alerted his …
  • … did not satisfy Darwin, who hired his old school friend John Price to correct the work . By the …

Darwin’s Photographic Portraits

Summary

Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of photography for the study of Expression and Emotions in Man and Animal, but can be witnessed in his many photographic portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … George Biddle Airy, and friend and close correspondent John Tyndall. Lock and Whitfield seem to have …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … appropriate, references are given to reprints available in John van Wyhe ed.,  Charles Darwin’s …
  • … Navy: and adapted for travellers in general , edited by John F. W. Herschel. London: John Murray. …

Satire of FitzRoy's Narrative of the Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, by John Clunies Ross. Transcription by Katharine Anderson

Summary

[f.146r Title page] Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle Supplement / to the 2nd 3rd and Appendix Volumes of the First / Edition Written / for and in the name of the Author of those / Volumes By J.C. Ross. / Sometime Master of a…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … – discoveriesnaval theories, and Historical sketches &c &cwhich I compressed into the
  • and, to those of foreign languagestranslations attached &c &c &c in the new Edition – …
  • … – I confidently refer to my report on the Cocos – &c &cabove mentioned. [ f.148r p
  • … – a sign unmistakableof these would-be-Abolitionists &c having weak heads, and unfeeling
  • one moving in that same Oceanfrom West to East &c At the Rock Islet of St Paul, in
  • an unheard of fortune by the sale of licenses to the Emperor &cwhenever it shall be adopted, …
  • by which personal Slavery was ultimately abolished in England &cRaise the Slaves to the
  • would gradually become the same as the Village one of India &cwhich also was most probably
  • with necessariesyet without any luxuries [such as soap &c] sufficiently extensive to maintain
  • are everywhere indented by sheltered Bays, Harbours, Creeks, &c and where a principal [ f
  • some fifty or sixty thousand soldiers, marine policemen &c would suffice toat leastprevent
  • and take them to their homes and hearths to be their slaves &c Hence I may perchance be supposed
  • from the poor people, whom they scarcely see, once in a year” &c I have gone on to declare, that
  • the enormity of dancing some steps to his own profane tunes &c &c &c Having as
  • one or manyand every Conglomeration of Islands, or Reefs &cexisting nowor formerly – …
  • birds eye, ground plan, profile, front and back sides &c a la mode de Funchallianof every
  • by the tenor of my remarks on the placeand the Settlers &c but, besides other withheld
  • … – they will substitutetwaddlings, and snarlings &c So now for mychef doeuvreI
  • has in fact occurred in 1841 to the British shipJohn Orton of Liverpoola new Vessel on her
  • … [ f.162r p.31 ] > and configuration &c were being examined and ascertained. …
  • … “The United Service Journalan abstract of anessay &con the subject by Professor Whewell – …
  • inadvertently exposed my knowledge of Mr Rossdiscoveries &cN.B. I am not in all this
  • as already mentioned. How the work soever completed &chas been received by the
  • of his family and party of followers amongst whom are a Smith and a Carpenter. Being himself a ship
  • to Bencoolen and Cape Good Hope with Mr Harehis brother John Hareand these Malaysas already

The "wicked book": Origin at 157

Summary

Origin is 157 years old.  (Probably) the most famous book in science was published on 24 November 1859.  To celebrate we have uploaded hundreds of new images of letters, bringing the total number you can look at here to over 9000 representing more than…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … from South Africa, and  the Scottish gardener John Scott conducted experiments in Edinburgh and …
  • … of fish , but also about the origins of language .  John Brodie Innes , vicar of the Darwins’ …
  • … Carus William Kemp Alfred Newton Frederick Smith A. G. Butler John

Darwin’s student booklist

Summary

In October 1825 Charles Darwin and his older brother, Erasmus, went to study medicine in Edinburgh, where their father, Robert Waring Darwin, had trained as a doctor in the 1780’s. Erasmus had already graduated from Cambridge and was continuing his studies…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … of the books are suitable reading for a medical student: John Abernethy was a London surgeon whose …
  • … (1750–2). A periodical by Samuel Johnson. 20 Smith 1826. 21 Clarke 1810–23. …
  • … Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown. Abernethy, John. 1819b.  Part of the introductory …
  • … Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown. Abernethy, John. 1822.  Physiological lectures, …
  • … Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown. Abernethy, John. 1823.  Introductory lectures, …
  • … Strahan and T. Cadell; Edinburgh: W. Creech. Bostock, John. 1824–7.  An elementary system of …
  • … of Natural History  33: 202–13. Franklin, John. 1823.  Narrative of a journey to the shores …
  • … and remains of Henry Kirke White of Nottingham: late of St. John’s College, Cambridge . London: J. …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … apparently as a result of thinking about the significance of John Gould’s and Richard Owen’s …
  • … Owen;  Mammalia , by G. R. Waterhouse;  Birds , by John Gould;  Fish , by Leonard Jenyns; and  …
  • … and living members of the sub-class Cirripedia (see S. Smith 1968). The Beagle specimens …
  • … entrusted to Thomas Bell, subsequently purchased by John Obadiah Westwood, first Hope Professor of …
  • … all crosses between all domestic birds & animals dogs, cats &c &c very valuable—' …

Suggested reading

Summary

There is an extensive secondary literature on Darwin's life and work. Here are some suggested titles that focus Darwin’s correspondence, as well as scientific correspondence and letter-writing more generally. Collections of Darwin’s letters …

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter . London: John Murray. Sources on …
  • … by David Barton and Nigel Hall. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Pp. 15–29. Chartier, …
  • … practice , edited by D. Barton and N. Hall. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pp. 83–108. Hornbeak, …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … had been founded in March 1876 by the London physiologist John Scott Burdon Sanderson to discuss how …
  • … Darwin rejoiced to hear that the Cambridge astronomer John Couch Adams not only approved of George’s …
  • … at the pre-publication sale dinner held by his publisher, John Murray ( letter to John Murray, 15 …
  • … ). In England, the clergyman botanist George Henslow, son of John Stevens Henslow, Darwin’s …

Darwin in letters, 1844–1846: Building a scientific network

Summary

The scientific results of the Beagle voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but he broadened his continuing investigations into the nature and origin of species. Far from being a recluse, Darwin was at the heart of British scientific society,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … correspondence with Charles Lyell, George Robert Waterhouse, John Stevens Henslow, Leonard Horner, …
  • … transferred from Henry Colburn, the original publisher, to John Murray, and throughout 1845 Darwin …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … for other peoples or vice versa. The Scottish botanist John Scott wrote from Calcutta, 4 May 1868 …
  • … funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, and the John Templeton Foundation. …
  • … to East Asia Scott, John 4 May 1868 …
  • … India   Scott, John 2 July 1869 …

Books on the Beagle

Summary

The Beagle was a sort of floating library.  Find out what Darwin and his shipmates read here.

Matches: 26 hits

  • books were kept in the poop cabin where CD worked and slept. John Lort Stokes and Philip Gidley King
  • … . 2 vols. Strasbourg, 1819. (Inscription in vol. 1: ‘C. Darwin HMS Beagle’; DAR 32.1: 61). Darwin
  • Antoine deA voyage round the worldTranslated by John Reinhold Forster. London, 1772. ( …
  • Travels through Norway and Lapland . . .Translated . . . by John Black. With Notes . . . by Robert
  • etc. London, 1743. (DAR 36.1: 447). Burchell, William JohnTravels in the interior of
  • 1826. (DAR 31.2: 333; Stoddart 1962, p.4). Byron, JohnThe narrative of the Honourable
  • Voyages  (editions unidentified; see also Hawkesworth, John). (DAR 32.2: 89v.; Robert FitzRoys
  • 8e, 10;  ‘Beaglediary , p. 407). Daniell, John FredericMeteorological essays and
  • 1831. (DAR 32.1: 53). Desaulses de Freycinet, L. Csee  Freycinet, L. C. Desaulses de
  • and western coasts of Australia. Fleming, JohnThe philosophy of zoology . . .  2 vols. …
  • atlas.  London, 1814. (DAR 30.1: 30v.). Forster, John ReinholdObservations made during a
  • vols. Edinburgh, 1824. (DAR 37.1: 662). Hawkesworth, JohnAn account of the voyages
  • 36.1: 469v.). Darwin LibraryDown. ‡ Henslow, John Stevens. Geological description of
  • essay on the kingdom of New Spain.  Translated by John Black. 2 vols. New York, 1811. (Inscription, …
  • deA voyage to South America . . .  Translated by John Adams. 2 vols. 4th ed. London, 1806. …
  • … ‘Charles Darwin M: Video. Novem r . 1832’; vol. 3 (1833): ‘C. Darwin’; letter to J. S. Henslow, 24
  • … (see Jones, T.)). Darwin LibraryCUL †. * Mawe, JohnTravels in the gold and diamond
  • …  3 vols. London, 1820. (DAR 32.1: 51v.). Michell, John. Conjectures concerning the cause . . …
  • notebook,  p. 80). Darwin LibraryCUL †. Miers, JohnTravels in Chile and La Plata . . . …
  • 28 August 1834). Darwin LibraryCUL †. Milton, JohnParadise lost.  ( ’Beaglediary , …
  • 1831’). Darwin LibraryCUL †. § Narborough, JohnAn account of several late voyages.  2
  • … ‘C. Darwin H.M.S. Beagle’. Copy examined by Sydney Smith  c.  1968. Quentin Keynes). Nuñez, …
  • Darwin LibraryCUL, 4th ed., 1837. ‡ Playfair, JohnIllustrations of the Huttonian theory
  • 1821. (DAR 30.1: 30). Darwin LibraryCUL. Thompson, John VaughanZoological researches and
  • world in the years 1766, 1767, and 1768 , in Hawkesworth, John  An account of the voyages . . . …
  • … , p. 20e). Hall, Basil. See below, Playfair, John. Humboldt, Alexander vonTableaux

ESHS 2018: 19th century scientific correspondence networks

Summary

Sunday 16 September, 16:00-18.00, Institute of Education, Room 802   Session chair: Paul White (Darwin Correspondence Project); Discussion chair: Francis Neary (Darwin Correspondence Project) This session marks the formal launch of Ɛpsilon …

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of examples from the Royal Society archives, examples of John Herschel’s and William Buckland’s …
  • … of Pennsylvania where he was a student of Benjamin Smith Barton who encouraged his interest in …
  • … This is also how Darlington made contact with the likes of John Torrey, Asa Gray, and George …
  • … American botanists, compiling a book of the letters of John Bartram, a leading colonial botanist, as …
  • … C. Flannery is Professor of Biology, retired, from St. John's University in New York.  …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 0 hits

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 7 hits

  • naturalists.    Prior to the publication in 1830 of John Vaughan Thompsons account of the
  • of disarray in the taxonomy of the group. Late in 1847, John Edward Gray, keeper of the zoological
  • emphasis upon analogy and affinity in arranging groups (S. Smith 1965; Ospovat 1981, p. 108). Darwin
  • settling such questions as yours,—whether number of species &c &c should enter as an element
  • from common stocksIn this view all relations of analogy &c &c &, consist of those
  • metamorphoses, as we shall see presently in Hippoboscus &c  states that in Crust, antennæ & …
  • spirits  Every cirriped that I dissect I preserve the jaws &c. &c. in this manner, which
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