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Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 10 hits

  • Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a …
  • … from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College …
  • … completing a natural historical narrative of the journey (Galton 1853). Darwin enjoyed and admired …
  • … animals in Africa. On receiving a copy of Origin , Galton remarked that reading the book was like …
  • … hypothesis of pangenesis in Variation (1868), Galton began a series of experiments on rabbits to …
  • … he wrote on 26 April 1870 . In the following year, Galton delivered a paper to the Royal Society …
  • … hereditary material to be transmitted through the blood. Galton resumed his experiments with …
  • … organs, isolated from the effects of environment or habit. Galton shared his views in several …
  • … sought help from his mathematician son George, who shared Galton’s more statistical approach to …
  • … in human achievement. In response to a questionnaire that Galton prepared for his book English men …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … alongside a botanical interest in roots, as he and his son Francis carried out their latest …
  • … alas, very dull & has disappointed me much’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 15 [June 1879] ). Even …
  • … with Charles Darwin and Ernst Haeckel. Kosmos was, as Francis Darwin reported from Germany that …
  • … the children correctly’, mentioning in particular that Francis Galton was the son of one of Erasmus …
  • … to contradict false statements that had been published by Francis Galton’s aunt, Mary Anne …
  • … for Captain Robert FitzRoy on the Beagle voyage, Francis Beaufort of the Admiralty described the …
  • … and poet’ ( Correspondence vol. 1, letter from Francis Beaufort to Robert FitzRoy, 1 September …
  • … ( letter from V. H. Darwin, 28 May [1879] ). On the Galton side of the family, Elizabeth Anne …
  • … perplexed than ever about life of D r . D’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 12 July [1879] ). It was …
  • … in plants. Over the previous two years, he and his son Francis had worked together on the …
  • … of radicles, the embryonic roots of seedlings ( letter to Francis Darwin, 16 June [1879] ). …
  • … to continue experiments on the sensitivity of radicles. Francis experienced obstacles from the start …
  • … views on heliotropism to such an extent that he implied that Francis’s experiments were ‘hardly …
  • … that it came from a specific gland in the leaf. This struck Francis as ‘bosh’, but, he complained to …
  • … up and go because Sachs didn’t.’ Moreover, Sachs admired Francis’s little spectroscope so much that …
  • … rooms in a house that was ‘disreputable’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 16 June 1879] ). …
  • … not think that plants were ‘mere machines’, reminding Francis on 2 June that he had long thought …
  • … he found he was ‘getting to hate the work’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 25 June [1879] ). Although …
  • … the book, the response from readers was gratifying. Francis Galton read the book with the greatest …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … G. E. (1) Beaufort, Francis (5) …
  • … Boole, M. E. (3) Boott, Francis (7) …
  • … Darwin, Emma (191) Darwin, Francis (287) …
  • … Everest, Robert (1) Ewbank, Francis (1) …
  • … Fox, W. D. (225) Francis, George (1) …
  • … Galton, Erasmus (1) Galton, Francis (118) …
  • … Archibald (1) Lloyd, Francis (1) …
  • … Parker, Charles (2) Parker, Francis (1) …
  • … Walford, Edward (2) Walker, Francis (6) …
  • … George (2) Warner, Francis (1) …
  • … F. M. (2) Wedgwood, Francis (4) …
  • … (2) Wemyss-Charteris-Douglas, Francis (1) …
  • … White, Adam (2) White, Francis Buchanan (3) …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 November [1872] ), and the …
  • … drawings shortly afterwards ( letter from Samuel Butler to Francis Darwin, [before 30 May 1872] , …
  • … the claims of spiritualists, and Darwin, through his cousin Francis Galton, had with some interest …
  • … however, incorporated in the second edition, produced by Francis Darwin after his father’s death. …
  • … new name on the list of volunteers: by the beginning of May, Francis Darwin, the Darwins’ third son, …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … Cross and self fertilisation  (1876). Darwin’s son Francis became increasingly involved in this …
  • … from within the family, and he was clearly delighted by Francis’s decision. A large portion …
  • … in animals. The subject was brought closer to home by Francis Galton’s work on inherited talent, …
  • … Poisons and electrocution . . . His son Francis was assisting the histologist Edward Emanuel …
  • … of medical research in London. On the advice of Klein, Francis obtained a new microscope for his …
  • … on botany, he drew more on assistance from his son Francis. While visiting his fiancée, Amy Ruck, in …
  • … notes and take tracings of their burrows” ( letter from Francis Darwin, 14 August [1873] ). …
  • … [1873] ).  Shortly afterwards, it was arranged for Francis to rent a house in the village (Down …
  • … to H. E. Litchfield, 20 February 1873 ). The surgeon Francis Stephen Bennet Francois de Chaumont, …
  • … of instinct and inheritance when he was asked by his cousin Francis Galton to participate in a study …
  • … to encourage interbreeding among the “naturally gifted” (Galton 1873a). Darwin was sympathetic to …
  • … and investing money very well” ( letter to Francis Galton, 28 May 1873 ). Among character traits, …
  • … his own character, he asked his sons to complete the list. Francis added to his father’s virtues: …
  • … and difficulties”. Later in the year, Darwin learned from Francis Maitland Balfour that Dohrn had …
  • … of one of these longish breaks, Darwin wrote to his son Francis, “I am in an idiotic state of …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments …
  • … of most advanced plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in …
  • … (see Movement in plants , pp. 112–13). He explained to Francis on 2 July : ‘I go on maundering …
  • … out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] ). …
  • … the bassoon & apparently more by a high than a low note.’ Francis apparently played the musical …
  • … on plant movement were intensely collaborative, with Francis playing a more active role than ever. …
  • … exchanged when they were apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in …
  • … ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June [1878] ). While Francis was away, Darwin sent regular …
  • … to talk to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two …
  • … is horrid not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). …
  • … topics and dictating experimental method and design. Francis seems to have been allowed to work more …
  • … cells of oats to determine whether they had chlorophyll, Francis reported ( letter from Francis
  • … that could not easily be obtained at Down House, but Francis thought Horace’s abilities were a match …
  • … well made.’ (Jemmy or Jim was Horace’s nickname.) Francis was occasionally struck by Sachs’s …
  • … every day & never the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). …
  • … to dismiss work that contradicted his own. Darwin asked Francis to test the results of the Polish …
  • … borrowed Cieselski & read him,’ he reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [22 June 1878] ). …
  • … style, Sachs seems to have been a very supportive mentor to Francis and even extended a kind of …
  • … which is here the cure for all evils’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [24 and 25 July 1878] ). …
  • … the family are here & all adoring Bernard’, he wrote to Francis on 7 July . ‘Bernard is very …
  • … the right’ and referred him to recent work by Francis Galton on selective breeding. He still thought …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of concern were received for months afterwards. Francis Galton: Hereditary genius and …
  • … Emma read aloud from a new book by Darwin’s half-cousin, Francis Galton. The work,  Hereditary …
  • … is an eminently  important difference’ ( letter to Francis Galton,  23 December [1869] ). …
  • … of inheritance through experiments on rabbits ( letter from Francis Galton, 11 December 1869 ). …
  • … the first to give me freedom of thought’ ( letter from Francis Galton, 24 December 1869 ). …

All Darwin's letters from 1873 go online for the anniversary of Origin

Summary

To celebrate the 158th anniversary of the publication of Origin of species on 24 November, the full transcripts and footnotes of over 500 letters from and to Charles Darwin in 1873 are now available online. Read about Darwin's life in 1873 through his…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … When he jokingly mentioned his need for staff, his son Francis proposed that he give up his medical …
  • … some love of the new and marvellous  ( Letter to Francis Galton, 28 May 1873 ) …
  • … investing money very well; very methodical in my habits.' Francis added to his father's …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … 2490 games’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876 ). Francis Darwin, happily established in Down …
  • … the first member of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amy’s child expected in …
  • … beloved daughter-in-law and relief from his anxiety about Francis. By the end of the year there was …
  • … Darwin reassured his close friend Joseph Hooker that he and Francis would attend the meeting. Darwin …
  • … subject takes an opposite line’. Although he conceded that Francis had the best of an argument with …
  • … to propose the young rising star of Cambridge morphology, Francis Maitland Balfour, for fellowship …
  • … of the earliest available commercial models of typewriter. Francis Darwin and his wife, Amy, …
  • … point, and he was reliant on his son George and cousin Francis Galton for the calculations. ‘I have …
  • … in their research. He revelled in the praise heaped on Francis by George Henry Lewes for an article …
  • … chemical pycrotoxine in vivisection experiments ( letter to Francis Darwin, [1 May 1876] ). Darwin …
  • … 2 May [1876] ). Darwin even cautioned the otherwise healthy Francis, ‘Take care and do not overwork …
  • … first time to a large and healthy boy, the son of Amy and Francis. Just four days later, Darwin had …
  • … son William sought comfort. He expressed his anxiety that Francis was too young to care for the baby …
  • … a practical stoicism in the face of death, and it was Francis’s mother-in-law, Mary Anne Ruck, who …
  • … (DAR 219.9: 138)). But Mary Anne Ruck’s ability to console Francis after Amy’s death gained Emma’s …
  • … equal ‘for goodness & kindness of heart’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 16 September [1876] ). …
  • … absorbing would soon be required, but feared that Francis would be unable to resume his …
  • … Darwin received Hooker’s condolences on 13 September , Francis had left Down. Amy was buried in …
  • … plans were set in motion to extend the house to accommodate Francis, and Darwin continued his own …
  • … Hackels bellowing at us yesterday very well’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 27 [September 1876] ). …
  • … Darwin on 29 September (DAR 239.23: 151). By the time Francis returned to Down in late October, Emma …
  • … as contributions to an ongoing botanical conversation. Francis’s ability to read German had given …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … by people wanting copies’, Darwin wrote to his son Francis on 28 February . Demand continued …
  • … liberal or orthodox. The American philosopher and journalist Francis Ellingwood Abbot incorporated …
  • … man & we were the best of friends’, he wrote to his son Francis on 28 February . However, …
  • … Darwin had been receiving regular reports from his cousin Francis Galton on the progress of …
  • … in order to facilitate cross-circulation ( letter from Francis Galton, 13 September 1871 ). …
  • … science ( letter to Horace Darwin, [15 December 1871] ). Francis was now studying medicine at St …
  • … of Trinity College, planned a trip to America, and invited Francis and two Cambridge friends. Darwin …
  • …  be almost superhuman virtue to give it up’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 16 May [1871] ). Darwin …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … furrows radiating on the side of the neck of his son Francis when he was playing the flute. …
  • … Darwin received a string of letters from his cousin Francis Galton, reporting on his efforts to …
  • … by breaking adjacent veins into one’ ( letter from Francis Galton, 25 June 1870 ). Occasionally …
  • … the latest litters has a white forefoot’  ( letter from Francis Galton, 12 May 1870 ). But in …
  • … an old fellow as I daresay I appear to you Francis completed his studies at Cambridge, …
  • … an old fellow as I daresay I appear to you’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 18 October [1870] ). …

Dining at Down House

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … luncheon fare. Letter 8296 —Darwin to Francis Galton, 21 April [1872] In this …

Life of Erasmus Darwin

Summary

The Life of Erasmus Darwin (1879) was a curious departure for Darwin. It was intended as a biographical note to accompany an essay on Erasmus's scientific work by the German writer Ernst Krause. But Darwin became immersed in his grandfather's…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in Darwinismus '; ' It piles up the glory and would please Francis '. Darwin' …
  • … Erasmus's character and restored his good reputation. Francis Galton was pleased to have been …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Darwin had become acquainted with Klein when his son Francis was studying medicine in London. Klein …
  • … performed on animals in previous years by Darwin’s cousin Francis Galton. These had been …
  • … manuscripts and proofs, Darwin now relied heavily on his son Francis, who had made the decision in …
  • … wrote, ‘I beg ten thousand pardon & more’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [ c . February 1875?] …
  • … plants , and moved on to Variation 2d ed., Francis signed himself, ‘Your affect son … the …
  • … 219.1: 89). The most eminent of Darwin’s guests was Francis, duke of Teck, a German prince …
  • … Darwin could not keep up, and on 22 July , he had Francis reply: ‘My Father desires me to say …
  • … on 2 December, the same meeting at which Romanes and Francis Darwin were made fellows. But Thiselton …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … botany was increasingly a collaborative affair with his son Francis, who had moved back to Down …
  • … In the end, Darwin did not publish on the subject, but Francis later reported some of the results of …
  • … 25 August 1877 ). At Down House, Darwin and Francis devised a method of recording leaf …
  • … with thread, card, and bits of glass. Encouraging Francis Darwin greatly enjoyed …
  • … eminent German botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn, who confirmed Francis’s observations: ‘the most …
  • … Infusoria’ ( letter from F. J. Cohn, 5 August 1877 ). Francis’s paper eventually appeared in the …
  • … had visited Down House and become friendly with George and Francis. He wrote to Francis on 24 …
  • … ‘As for “natural selection”’, he wrote to Francis on 25 November , ‘frankly to me it now seems a …
  • … for he began to receive petitions from strangers. The writer Francis Lloyd, who was in poor health …
  • … for his further work. Lloyd had written a critique of Francis Galton’s theory of heredity in 1876, …
  • … will allow me to send you a cheque for £10’ ( letter to [Francis Lloyd], 1 May [1877] ). Another …
  • … In the end, Darwin made the journey along with Emma. George, Francis, and Horace also attended. The …
  • … measure the rate at which stones were buried ( letter from Francis Darwin, [28 October 1877?] ). …

Rutland Gate, London

Summary

Blubbering children

Matches: 1 hits

  • Francis Galton thanks Darwin for a copy of Expression and offers some …

Darwin and Human Nature

Summary

There is substantial correspondence to illuminates Darwin’s published work on human evolution in Descent of Man and Expression of the Emotions.  The letter sets and discussion questions presented here focus on nineteenth-century debates about the unity of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … are Alfred Russel Wallace; Darwin’s cousin, the eugenicist Francis Galton; the zoologist and Roman …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … reproductive choices would have an effect on future society. Francis Galton had written about the …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … are not found listed here. The description given by Francis Darwin of his father’s method of …
  • … Darwin Library (AC.34). Darwin’s books were bequeathed to Francis Darwin, who, in 1908, gave all but …
  • … to be available to scholars using the archive. Books that Francis Darwin had kept were left to his …
  • … 1828] 31 An analysis of British Ferns. G. W. Francis 4 s  [Francis 1837]— plates of …
  • … Vol 2 & 3. } 20 th . Galtons Tour in S. Africa [Galton 1853] good Aug 23. Moore …
  • … Smith life [S. Smith 1855] Galtons Art of Travelling [Galton 1855] March 13 th  2 d …
  • … work is listed again on p. [22]. 44  Probably Francis Boott. 45  Edward …
  • … Africa . London.  *119: 18v.; 119: 14a Bacon, Francis. 1825–36.  The works of Francis
  • … ed. London. [Darwin Library.]  128: 12 Castelnau, Francis, Comte de. 1846. M. de Castelnau …
  • … of   Linnæus . n.p.  119: 4a Davis, John Francis. 1852.  China, during war and since …
  • … the Second.  London. [Other eds.]  119: 17b Francis, George William. 1837.  An analysis …
  • … of J. Galt . 2 vols. London.  119: 21b Galton, Francis. 1853.  The narrative of an …
  • … Cowper . 4 vols. London.  119: 5a Head, Francis Bond. 1834.  Bubbles from the Brunnens …
  • … Leonard, ed. 1843.  Memoirs and correspondence of   Francis Horner.  Edited by Leonard Horner. 2 …
  • … . Boston. [Other eds.] *119: 18v. [Jeffrey, Francis]. 1811. Alison on taste.  Edinburgh …
  • … Library.] 128: 6 Jones, George. 1849.  Sir Francis Chantrey; recollections   of his …
  • … . 2 vols. London. [Other eds.]  119: 2a Larpent, Francis Seymour. 1853.  The private …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 9a Macclintock, Francis Leopold. 1859.  The voyage of the   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  *128: 149 Napier, William Francis Patrick. 1828–40.  History of the …
  • … [Other eds.]  *119: 23; 128: 5 Napier, William Francis Patrick. 1857.  The life and …
  • …  Weimar. [Darwin Library.]  128: 12 [Newman, Francis William]. 1847.  A history of the …
  • … North, Roger. 1826.  The lives of the Right Hon. Francis   North, Baron Guildford, … the Hon. Sir …
  • … A. Tulk. London: Ray Society.  119: 20a Oliphant, Francis Romano. 1859.  Narrative of the …
  • … of Vienna by the   Turks . Translated from the German by Francis Leveson Gower [afterwards …
  • … [Abstract in DAR 91: 5.]  *119: 5v. Smedley, Francis Edward. [1854–6].  Harry Coverdale’s …
  • … . London.  *128: 178; 128: 9 Stephens, James Francis. 1827–46.  Illustrations of British …
  • … eds.]  *128: 161 Thurstan, Henry J.  pseud . (Francis Turner Palgrave). 1858.  The …
  • … Cordillères de l’Amérique du   Sud . In Castelnau, Francis de,  Expédition dans les   parties …

Discussion Questions and Essay Questions

Summary

There are a wide range of possibilities for opening discussion and essay writing on Darwin’s correspondence.  We have provided a set of sample discussion questions and essay questions, each of which focuses on a particular topic or correspondent in depth.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Müller and the adaptations of insects to flowers (1867), Francis Galton on inheritance theory …
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