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Women’s scientific participation


Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwins
  • home in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May
  • to Darwins queries about Expression during a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223
  • January 1868] Darwin asks Thomas Huxley to pass on a questionnaire to his wife, Henrietta. …
  • 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwins
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • her nieces ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen
  • … [23 April 1874] Thereza Story-Maskelyne responds to a letter of Darwins which was
  • insects. Men: Letter 2221 - Blyth, E. to Darwin, [22 February 1858] …
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • on the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots


Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 16 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography
  • to Francis Galton, 15 [June 1879] ). Even the prospect of a holiday in the Lake District in August
  • W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] ). From July, Darwin had an additional worry: the
  • that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I
  • way round?’ At least the last letter of 1879 contained a warmer note and the promise of future
  • old Darwins seventieth birthday on 12 February was a cause for international celebration. A
  • … & would please Francis’, he pointed out ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 13 March [1879 ]). …
  • thoughtperfect in every way’ ( letter from E. A. Wheler, 25 March 1879 ). She suggested that
  • … … neither cross nor ennuied’ (Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: 125)). Darwin
  • say that he has opposed it’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: …
  • get home ‘& began drumming at once’ (Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [27 August 1879] (DAR 219
  • it dominated the picture (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [17 July 1879] (DAR 219.9: …
  • men of science quarrelled (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [6 September 1879] (DAR 219.1: …

Women as a scientific audience


Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … obscure, even after it had been proofread and edited by “a lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W …
  • … asks his son, Francis, to check his Latin translation of a passage of Descent . Evidence …
  • … , Murray tells Darwin that he believes the work will be a success and will cause a stir among men. …

Scientific Networks


Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … | Class | Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections
  • activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his
  • Bonds of friendship were very important in science in a period when strong institutional structures
  • controversy, or personal loss. Letter writing was not only a means of sustaining such friendships
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • about Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • not immutable. He admits to Hookerit is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736 — …
  • of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674
  • and questions Gray on the alpine flora of the USA. He sends a list of plants from Grays Manual of
  • C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin writes a challenging letter to Gray, saying: “But my
  • why he believes species of the same genus generally have a common or continuous area; they are
  • He thanks Darwin for saving his correspondence. He senta yarn about speciesin October mail, and
  • by discussing their correspondence. He then moves on to a discussion of the great dam across Yangma
  • differences constitute varieties, not species. He ends with a discussion of lamination of gneiss. …
  • … . Letter 4260aDarwin, C. R. to Becker, L. E., 2 Aug [1863] Darwin thanks Lydia



Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … although he tended to avoid the subject as much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … Gray and tells him Origin has “stirred up the mud with a vengeance”; Gray and three or four …
  • … for the attention now given to the subject. He poses Gray a question on design in nature, as he is …
  • … He also discusses his views on design. He shares a witty thought experiment about an angel. …
  • … idea of Pangenesis”. He talks about Gray giving him a good slap at his concluding paragraph, where …
  • … Letter 5307 — Darwin, C. R. to Boole, M. E., 14 Dec 1866 Darwin believes he is unable to …
  • … Letter 8070 — Darwin, C. R. to Abbot, F. E., 16 Nov [1871] Darwin explains why he must …



The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 17 hits

  • Disagreement & Respect | Conduct of Debate | Darwin & Wallace The best-known
  • the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely variable. Many of
  • sharp theoretical differences with him; on the other hand, a number of his public critics assisted
  • and support sustained in spite of enduring differences. Darwin's correspondence can thus help
  • Disagreement and Respect Darwin rarely engaged with critics publically. Letters exchanged
  • Richard Owen, the eminent comparative anatomist, show how Darwin tried to manage strong disagreement
  • were less severe, the relationship quickly deteriorated and Darwin came to regard him as a bitter
  • but he assures Sedgwick he does not send his book out of a spirit of bravado, but a want of respect. …
  • … “grand principle natural selectionisbut a secondary consequence of supposed, or known, …
  • Nov [1859] Darwin says Sedgwick could not have paid him a more honourable compliment than
  • of his book. He is grievedto have shocked a man whom I sincerely honour”. He mentions that he has
  • says to Darwin he will welcome his work [ Origin ] with aclose & continuous perusal”. He
  • London Professor of geology, Charles Lyell at length a conversation with Owen concerning Origin . …
  • unfriendly manner. Darwin remarks that Owen accepted a relationship between bears and whales: “By
  • He is sensitive because ofunjust thingssaid by avery distinguished friend” [A. Sedgwick]. …
  • Letter 5500Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 12 Apr [1867] Darwin is sympathetic to
  • the attacked person. Letter 5533Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, C. R., 12 May 1867

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life


1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 17 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • and cosseting regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm
  • Cross and self fertilisation , that the family suffered a devastating loss. The Darwins must have
  • expected in September. Their joy at the safe delivery of a healthy boy was soon replaced by anguish
  • his anxiety about Francis. By the end of the year there was a different order at Down House with
  • had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his
  • Origin for the very last time, and made minor changes to a reprint of the second edition of
  • voyage, Volcanic islands and South America , in a new single-volume edition titled
  • was neverthelessfirmly resolved not even to look at a single proof ’. Perhaps Caruss meticulous
  • to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). Revising Orchids was less a return to old work than part of the
  • Autobiography’ (‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). During a two-week holiday after finishing Cross and self
  • we have & you are one of the best of all’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 11 September [1876] ). …
  • she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August 1876] (DAR 219.9: …
  • herself & is so tender’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6
  • completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6: …
  • horticulturists and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year


The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 17 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A vicious dispute over an anonymous
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • one of the greatest men the world has ever produced. He gave a wonderful impetus to science by
  • to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused
  • from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one
  • I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • William Henry Myers, and Thomas Henry Huxley, who sent a long report to Darwin with the spirit
  • America of thestrange newsthat Darwin had alloweda spirit séanceat his home ( letter from T
  • Coral reefs His son Horace had suggested a new edition of the coral book in December 1873, …
  • all the horrid bother of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The book
  • artificial gastric juice  for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon
  • try to get it exhibited at a Royal Society of London soirée  (see letter from Anton Dohrn, 6 April
  • nephew, the fine-art specialist Henry Parker ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 17 [March 1874] ). He
  • Julius Victor Carus, and his publisher, Eduard Koch of E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings


‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwins theorising about species, and
  • way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving
  • coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of
  • year, he campaigned vigorously against the blackballing of a young zoologist, Edwin Ray Lankester, …
  • In January, the protracted dispute with Mivart came to a close. The final chapter of the controversy
  • On 8 January , he told Hooker: ‘I will write a savage letter & that will do me some good, if I
  • with much advice and assistance from his family, he sent a curt note to Mivart on 12 January , …
  • Hooker and Thomas Henry Huxley. Because Mivart was a distinguished zoologist, a fellow of the
  • pp. 1617). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also
  • in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up
  • in April 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, letters from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 and 10
  • day That ever you were born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   …
  • plants (Carus trans. 1876a). The German publisher E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagshandlung began to

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest


The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 16 hits

  • The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now
  • all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwins theory of transmutation
  • of special creation on the basis of alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed
  • for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwins work was given by Hooker in an
  • the details of Hookers proposed talk formed the basis of a lengthy and lively exchange of letters
  • frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwins sisters died, Emily Catherine
  • responded philosophically to these deaths, regarding both as a merciful release from painful illness
  • yet much taste for common meat,’ he continued, ‘but eat a little game or fowl twice a day & eggs
  • after the startling apparition of your face at R.S. Soirèewhich I dreamed of 2 nights running. …
  • on those terms so you are in for it’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [  c . 10 May 1866] ). …
  • Georg Bronn, had been published in 1860 and 1863 by the firm E. Schweizerbartsche
  • wasmerely ordinaryly diœcious’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 May11 June 1866] ). On
  • a case of dimorphic becoming diœcious’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, 20 June [1866] ). Darwin
  • I am well accustomed to such explosions’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 22 June [1866] ). He urged
  • indeed at poor Susans loneliness’ ( letter from E. C. Langton to Emma and Charles Darwin, [6 and 7

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep


In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as …
  • … the mental faculties of the two-year-old with those of a monkey. Another diversion from botanical …
  • … agent of progress. The year closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … position assumed by leaves at night (nyctitropism) was a protection against heat loss. ‘I think we …
  • … me much & has cost us great labour, as it has been a problem since the time of Linnaus. But we …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … in the petioles of the Cotyledons of oxalis, I conclude that a pulvinus must be developed from …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest


The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 19 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • the whole of the confounded book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • … , ‘for as my son Frank says, “you treat man in such a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate
  • taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases
  • year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the
  • of illustrating his book. The year  also brought a significant milestone for the family, as
  • … [of] the facts, during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working
  • work on species theory in the late 1830s. In recent years, Darwin had collected a wealth of material
  • to human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwins aim of  showing kinship with animals
  • published on 24 February, and all 2500 copies were sold in a week. ‘Murray says he istorn to
  • three more printings, 2000 in March, 2000 in April, and a further 1000 in December. The level of
  • and the speed at which they appeared. Arrangements for a US edition had been in place since December
  • Darwin wrote to Murray on 20 March 1871 , ‘It is quite a grand trade to be a scientific man.’ …
  • liking, ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). Reaction
  • a high aesthetic appreciation of beauty ( letter from E. J. Pfeiffer, [before 26 April 1871] ). …
  • most deep and tender religious feeling’ ( letter from F. E. Abbot, 20 August 1871 ). The Anglican
  • who wasas good as twice refined gold’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 September [1871] ). …

Referencing women’s work


Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 13 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • Animal intelligence referred to the contributions of 'a young lady, who objects to her name
  • throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • by numerous women of their infants are not referenced in a section of Expression onthe
  • was novelist Elizabeth Gaskell for her description of a crying baby in Mary Barton. …
  • Mould and Earthworms but she was identified only asa lady, on whose accuracy I can implicitly
  • near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • activity undertaken around Machynlleth in Wales. She has dug a number of trenches, measured soil
  • fields of North Wales. Letter 8193 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [1 February
  • … . Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin asks
  • … . Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin

List of correspondents


Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours


Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 22 hits

  • Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwins research had centred firmly on botany. The
  • spent completing Forms of flowers , his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the
  • of bloom, each of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwins botany was
  • assisted his fathers research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his sons own
  • by his engagement to Sara Sedgwick, an American from a family that the Darwins had befriended. The
  • from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of
  • sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of
  • and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term
  • as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton
  • measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual
  • dreadful work making out anything about dried flowers’, Darwin complained to Asa Gray on 8 March
  • pleases me.’. Darwin dedicated the book to Gray, ‘as a small tribute of respect and affection’. He
  • to you.’ Drawing his separate publications together into a larger whole enabled Darwin to advance
  • measure: ‘it might then be highly beneficial to [a plant] that the same flower or the same
  • I believe it is of value, it is not likely that more than a few hundred copies w d . be sold’. His
  • of Kosmos covering the German debate (letters to W. E. Gladstone, 2 October 1877 and 25
  • form and of motion was exact and lively’ ( letter from W. E. Gladstone, 23 October 1877 ). …
  • found him as soft & smooth as butter’ ( letter to C. E. Norton, 16 March 1877 ). Hooker was
  • the gospel of dirt the order of the day’ ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 27 January [1877] ).  Carlyle
  • study of medical monstrosity ( letter from C. T. E. Siebold, 10 October 1877 ). An American banker

Darwin as mentor


Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 9 hits

  • Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific …
  • … Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin …
  • … on insufficient grounds. Letter 3934 - Darwin to Scott, J., [21 January 1863] …
  • … material worthy of publication. Letter 4185 - Darwin to Scott, J., [25 & 28 May …
  • … “lucid vigorous style”. In consultation with Emma, Darwin offers Henrietta “some little memorial” in …
  • … so many observations without aid. Letter 8146 - Darwin to Treat, M., [5 January 1872] …
  • … scientific journal”. Letter 8171 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L., [21 January 1872] …
  • … stooping over holes for hours which “tried my head”. Darwin notes that Lucy is worth her weight in …
  • … J. D., [30 August 1874] Darwin comments on a “clever” article written by Mary Barber and …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution


The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 19 hits

  • The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the
  • in relation to Sex’. Always precise in his accounting, Darwin reckoned that he had started writing
  • gathered on each of these topics was far more extensive than Darwin had anticipated. As a result,  …
  • and St George Jackson Mivart, and heated debates sparked by Darwins proposed election to the French
  • Lyell, ‘thank all the powers above & below, I shall be a man again & not a horrid grinding
  • Finishing Descent; postponing Expression Darwin began receiving proofs of some of the
  • … ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on parts of the
  • style, the more grateful I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had
  • … , the latter when she was just eighteen years of age. Darwin clearly expected her to make a
  • He worried that parts of the book weretoo like a Sermon: who wd ever have thought that I shd. turn
  • so unimportant as the mind of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). …
  • philanthropist Frances Power Cobbe. At Cobbes suggestion, Darwin read some of Immanuel Kants  …
  • looking exclusively into his own mind’, and himself, ‘a degraded wretch looking from the outside
  • … ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in his beard with
  • side of human descent. On 7 March 1870, Darwin made a note on the shape of human ears: ‘W. has seen
  • made drawings of ears of monkeys & shortly afterwards he saw a man with tip & instantly
  • statue of Puck, the mischievous fairy in Shakespeares  A midsummer nights dreamDarwin
  • sketch in  Descent , and discussed thetipas a rudimentary organ, describing its frequency and
  • attending college lectures for the time being ( letter to [E.W. Blore], [October 1870 or later] ). …

Darwin and Gender Projects by Harvard Students


Working in collaboration with Professor Sarah Richardson and Dr Myrna Perez, Darwin Correspondence Project staff developed a customised set of 'Darwin and Gender' themed resources for a course on Gender, Sex and Evolution first taught at Harvard…

Matches: 18 hits

  • with Professor Sarah Richardson and Dr Myrna Perez, Darwin Correspondence Project staff
  • we feature some of the student projects that were created as a result. Links to the resources and to
  • to encourage students to explore disparities between Darwin's public ideas and those he
  • by the resources include: To what extent were Darwin's ideas about the sexes
  • …     Sarah is a recent Harvard graduate. Her interest in
  • one of the key insights of the DCPs research into Darwins understandings of sex and gender. In his
  • between the child and the man” ( Descent 2: 317). Darwin believed, however, that although women
  • superior to men. Sarah argues that understanding Darwins belief in the higher morality of
  • …   Miranda graduated from Harvard with a degree in Government. She was drawn to
  • her house. Miranda focuses on the role that Darwins domestic life played in his
  • the more grateful I shall be.”(Letter to Darwin, H. E., [8 Feb 1870] ) Although Miranda
  • to have her edit the Descent of Man , she offers us a glimpse into the complex gender landscape
  • Amalia originally took Professor Richardsons course on a whim, interested in the relationship
  • communications reveal that while he may have been a firm believer in male intellectual superiority, …
  • marked asfor your private use.” (Letter to Kennard, C.A., 9 Jan 1882 ) In this personal
  • believe that womens intellectual inferiority was entirely a matter of innate ability, but was also
  • Vanessa graduated from Harvard with a degree in Computer Science, with a particular interest in
  • laboratories and technology settings have led her to develop a strong interest in theories of gender

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health


On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

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  • On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11
  • … … of having grown older’. This portrait, the first of Darwin with his now famous beard, had been
  • of dimorphic plants with Williams help; he also ordered a selection of new climbing plants for his
  • 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • physician-in-ordinary to Queen Victoria. Jenner prescribed a variety of antacids and purgatives, and
  • the dimorphic aquatic cut-grass  Leersia . In May, Darwin finished his paper on  Lythrum
  • continued throughout the summer. When he finished a preliminary draft of his paper on climbing
  • he had set aside the previous summer. In October, Darwin let his friends know that on his
  • and he received more letters of advice from Jenner. In a letter of 15 December [1864] to the
  • November and December were also marked by the award to Darwin of the Royal Societys Copley Medal; …
  • been unsuccessfully nominated the two previous years. As Darwin explained to his cousin William
  • arose over the grounds on which it was conferred, brought a dramatic conclusion to the year. Darwin
  • his observations indoors ( Correspondence  vol. 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin
  • However, the queries that Darwin, describing himself asa broken-down brother-naturalist’, sent to
  • for another specimen: ‘I want it fearfully for it is a leaf climber & therefore sacred’ ( …
  • transitional forms. Darwin came to think, for example, that a leaf, while still serving the
  • Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to