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Darwin Correspondence Project

Martha A. Hardaker


American essayist and critical writer. Born in Maine, probably as Martha A. Kalloch, daughter of James Madison Kalloch (1812–92). BA, St Lawrence University, 1872. In 1880, published on the ethics of sex, arguing that women were intellectually inferior to men; continued to promote this view after being appointed to the staff of the Boston Evening Transcript in 1881.


Boston Transcript, 11 September 1884

Hardaker 1880

Massachusetts, State Census, 1855 (West Roxbury, Ward 3) (s.v. Hardacker;, accessed 6 November 2020)

Massachusetts, wills and probate records, 1635–1991 (, accessed 6 November 2020)

New Northwest, 1 September 1881, p. 4

United States Federal Census 1850 (Warren, Lincoln, Maine [1]/191a) (s.v. McKallock), 1880 (Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts 712/9B) (s.v. Hodaker) (, accessed 6 November 2020)

U.S., Find a grave index, 1600s–current (, accessed 10 November 2020)


Hardaker, Martha A. 1880. The ethics of sex. North American Review 131: 62–74.