Scottish physician, psychiatrist, and author. Graduated from the College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, in 1862. Medical director, West Riding Asylum, Wakefield, 1866–75. Lord chancellor’s visitor in lunacy, 1875–1922. Pioneering researcher into the causes and management of mental illness. Editor, West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports, 1871–5. One of the founders of Brain, 1878; co-editor, 1878–85. Author of a number of popular works on mental health and social policy. Knighted, 1886. FRS 1883.