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From Hinrich Nitsche   18 April 1871

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Summary

Sends CD photographs of his atavistic ears and ears of a foetal orang in the collection of the Zoological Museum, Leipzig.

Author:  Hinrich Nitsche
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Apr 1871
Classmark:  DAR 87: 41–2, 45–6, 67
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7697

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From H. M. Westropp   20 April [1871]

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Summary

Anecdote of bear reasoning [see Descent, 2d ed., p. 76].

Similarity of forms of ornamentation and implements in widely separate races and ages [Descent 1: 233].

Author:  Hodder Michael Westropp
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Apr [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 90: 38–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7703

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From J. V. Carus   22 April 1871

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Summary

On ratios of the sexes in insects, and other facts relating to sexual selection.

Author:  Julius Victor Carus
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Apr 1871
Classmark:  DAR 89: 98–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7708

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From T. W. Wood   24 April 1871

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Summary

John Murray has commissioned him to redraw two birds. Hopes to re-do all of the birds taken from Brehm’s Thierleben.

Author:  Thomas William Wood
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Apr 1871
Classmark:  DAR 89: 22–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7711

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From Frank Chance   [before 25 April 1871]

Summary

His beard is darker than his hair, an exception to CD’s rule in Descent [2: 319]. Encloses sample of his hair, beard, and whiskers.

Author:  Frank Chance
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 25 Apr 1871]
Classmark:  DAR 89: 198–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7522

Matches: 1 hit

  • … selection in relation to sex. By Charles Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. …

From F. T. Köppen   25 April 1871

Summary

Sends his paper on locusts ["Die geographische Verbreitung der Wanderheuschrecke", Petermann’s Geogr. Mittheil. (1871)]. The effect of the growth of forest land on their increase; meteorological and climatic effects.

Also observations made on increase in mice as a result of increase of locusts, on whose eggs they fed, and of increase of weasels that fed on mice.

Author:  Friedrich Theodor Köppen (Fedor Petrovich Keppen)
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Apr 1871
Classmark:  DAR 46.1: 102
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7716

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From W. B. Tegetmeier   [after 25 April 1871]

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Summary

Points out errata in Descent.

Author:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 25 Apr 1871]
Classmark:  DAR 88: 83
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7523

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From William Preyer   27 April 1871

Summary

Thanks CD for Origin, 5th ed.

Comments on reviews of Descent by the Duke of Argyll and A. R. Wallace.

Lists the Darwinian professors at Jena.

WP’s work shows external ear to have no physiological functions.

W. Müller’s book not yet arrived. Will send Müller’s next works.

Author:  William Thierry (William) Preyer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 Apr 1871
Classmark:  DAR 87: 52, DAR 174: 69
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7721

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From C. W. Peach   1 May 1871

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Summary

Sends specimens of gulf-weed and cirripedes for CD to identify.

Various observations on Descent,

inherited deafness,

recognition of musical notes by dog, etc.

Author:  Charles William Peach
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 May 1871
Classmark:  DAR 89: 177–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7731

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …
  • … published, was discontinued from 1867 to 1874. From Peach’s description and the location …

To V. O. Kovalevsky   3 May 1871

Summary

Asks VOK to translate a passage from Franz Körte, Die Streich-, Zug- oder Wander-Heuschrecke [1828], p. 33.

Deplores the "fearful piece of tyranny" that is obstructing publication of Descent in Russia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Vladimir Onufrievich Kovalevsky (Владимир Онуфриевич Ковалевский)
Date:  3 May 1871
Classmark:  Institut Mittag-Leffler
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7735

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From Henry Lonsdale   3 May 1871

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Summary

Credit for observation on supra-condyloid foramen in man is really due to Robert Knox, not John Struthers, as in Descent.

Author:  Henry Lonsdale
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 May 1871
Classmark:  DAR 87: 47–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7736

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From John Murray   10 May 1871

Summary

Offers CD same payment for the 3d issue of Descent as for 2d.

Has bespoke four better drawings of birds in case a 4th issue is needed.

Vanity Fair wants CD’s portrait by Carlo Pellegrini ["Ape"].

Author:  John Murray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 May 1871
Classmark:  DAR 171: 398
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7750

Matches: 1 hit

  • … until the second edition was published in 1874. See letter from T.  W.  Wood, 24 April  …

From Henry Reeks   25 May 1871

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Summary

Comments on and corrections for chapter 13, "Mammals", of Descent.

Author:  Henry Stephen (Henry) Reeks
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 May 1871
Classmark:  DAR 88: 100–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7767

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From J. V. Carus   28 May 1871

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Summary

Sends corrections for Descent.

Author:  Julius Victor Carus
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 May 1871
Classmark:  DAR 88: 106–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7774

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From Alfred Newton   29 May 1871

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Summary

[Reference to Japanese nuthatch (see Descent, 2d ed., p. 410 n.) excised from letter.]

Sorry they will not have Frank Darwin with them any more.

Author:  Alfred Newton
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 May 1871
Classmark:  DAR 88: 170–1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7778

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. ODNB : Oxford dictionary of national …

From A. G. Butler   2 June 1871

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Summary

Facts contradicting Wallace’s views on coloration of Lepidoptera.

Author:  Arthur Gardiner Butler
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 June 1871
Classmark:  DAR 89: 108–111
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7797

Matches: 3 hits

  • … incorporated in the larger work (see Butler 1874, pp.  22–4; 30–2; 35–7; 43–5; 56–62; 67– …
  • … Butler 1871, p.  251). Butler’s Lepidoptera exotica (Butler 1874) was first published in …
  • … twenty parts between 1869 and 1874. His ‘Monograph of the genus Callidryas with figures of …

From Henry Reeks   3 June 1871

Summary

Observations on habits of caribou and deer in Newfoundland.

Suggests nightingale egg coloration evolved from white to olive for protection.

Author:  Henry Stephen (Henry) Reeks
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 June 1871
Classmark:  DAR 176: 80
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7799

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From Gerhard Rohlfs   6 June 1871

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Summary

Various observations from his experience in Africa relevant to Descent.

Fertility of hybrids of blacks and whites.

Protective coloration of Sahara animals.

Natives’ ideas of female beauty.

Author:  Gerhard Friedrich (Gerhard) Rohlfs
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 June 1871
Classmark:  DAR 89: 183–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7805

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Descent : The descent of man, and selection …

From Raphael Meldola   7 June 1871

Summary

Discusses the origin and advantages of sexual differentiation in terms of division of labour.

Discusses the origin of the giraffe’s neck and the unsoundness of St G. J. Mivart’s view with respect to it.

Points out an error in Descent.

Author:  Raphael Meldola
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 June 1871
Classmark:  DAR 171: 116
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7807

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. 2d edition. London: John Murray. 1874. Donzel, Hugo Fleury. 1836. Observations sur …

From Ferdinand Stoliczka   21 June 1871

Summary

CD elected an honorary member of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Author:  Ferdinand Stoliczka
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 June 1871
Classmark:  DAR 230: 26
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7829A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Library–CUL has one issue of the latter (n.s.  43 (1874), pt 2, extra number (1875)). …
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Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the …
  • … intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a Cambridge friend, …
  • … and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to …
  • … much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). I feel very old & …
  • … old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor …
  • … on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and …
  • … Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] ). Later in the month, …
  • … and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it was ‘all …
  • … perform his antics’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 29 January [1874] ). This did not stop word getting …
  • … at his home ( letter from T. G. Appleton, 2 April 1874 ). Back over old ground New …
  • … Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 …
  • … of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The book came out in June with the …
  • … Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D. Dana, 21 July 1874 ); however, he did not retract his …
  • … dog breeders (letters from George Cupples, 21 February 1874 and 12 March 1874 ); the material …
  • … Islands (Hawaii; letters from T. N. Staley, 12 February 1874 and 20 February 1874 ; letters …
  • … islanders ( letter from William Dealtry, 16 January 1874 ). One of the most significant …
  • … enemy into a jelly’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 14 April 1874 ). The technical nature of Huxley’s …
  • … mind where it goes’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 16 April 1874 ). The second edition of  …
  • … would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Darwin's son George …
  • … of your thought’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 20 April 1874 ). The Mivart affair …
  • … mental and physical disorders (G. H. Darwin 1873b). In July 1874, an anonymous essay appeared in the …
  • … libel’ on his son ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [27 July 1874] ).  George, however, consulted with his …
  • … [a] lying scoundrel’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ). He drafted a brief statement of …

Darwin's 1874 letters go online

Summary

The full transcripts and footnotes of over 600 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1874 are published online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1874 through his letters and see a full list of the letters. The 1874 letters…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … of over 600 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1874 are published online for the first time. …
  • … ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ) The Mivart affair highlights …
  • … are some other highlights from Darwin's correspondence in 1874: I feel as old as …
  • … signifying so much.  ( Letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ) At the age of 65, Darwin …
  • … more quietly was severely tested by some of the events of 1874. He had a clear idea of the shape of …
  • … must be enough for me  ( Letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ) During the year he …
  • … the positive  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 30 August [1874] ) – he mourned after several …
  • … day’s work  ( Letter to D. F. Nevill, 18 September [1874] ) Darwin’s family continued …
  • … have to do—  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 30 November [1874] ) Darwin’s continuing …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … In 1874, the Catholic zoologist St George Jackson Mivart caused Darwin and his son …
  • … appeared to have created very little stir, until, in July 1874, Mivart published an anonymous review …
  • … of the Quarterly ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 29 July 1874 ). Darwin hastily advised against …
  • … to wish to circulate ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ). Darwin provided a draft of the …
  • … to endorse them ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 5 August 1874 ). He sent a second draft, which Darwin …
  • … a fair copy of his letter with his letter of 6 [August] 1874 . George and Darwin were also …
  • … George’s letter to Murray with his letter of 11 August 1874 , and was no doubt relieved to …
  • … to all he asked ( letter from John Murray, 12 August 1874 ). In October, George’s letter …
  • … a Pickwickian sense’ ( letter to John Murray, 18 October 1874 ). In other words, Mivart had used …
  • … reaction was savage ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [6 December 1874] ). Hooker and Huxley between them …
  • … the attack on George ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December 1874 ). Huxley met Mivart at an evening …
  • … ( Enclosure to letter from J. D. Hooker, 21 December 1874 .) A reply soon came from Mivart . …
  • … of a gentleman’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 23 December 1874 ). However, Huxley still wrote to …
  • … this.   124 Gower St W.C. Dec. 24th 1874. Private & Confidential …
  • … to John Tyndall ( letter from John Tyndall, 28 December 1874 , and letter from J. D. Hooker, 29 …
  • … 16 January 1875, p. 66, signed, ‘The Quarterly Reviewer of 1874’. In it he reiterated his claim that …

Joseph Simms

Summary

The American doctor and author of works on physiognomy Joseph Simms wrote to Darwin on 14 September 1874, while he was staying in London. He enclosed a copy of his book Nature’s revelations of character (Simms 1873). He hoped it might 'prove…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … physiognomy Joseph Simms wrote to Darwin on 14 September 1874 , while he was staying in London. …
  • … stockings. (Letter from Joseph Simms, 14 September 1874 ) The foot could tell …

Essay: Evolution & theology

Summary

—by Asa Gray EVOLUTION AND THEOLOGY The Nation, January 15, 1874 The attitude of theologians toward doctrines of evolution, from the nebular hypothesis down to ‘Darwinism,’ is no less worthy of consideration, and hardly less diverse, than that of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … EVOLUTION AND THEOLOGY The Nation, January 15, 1874 The attitude of theologians toward …

Essay: What is Darwinism?

Summary

—by Asa Gray WHAT IS DARWINISM? The Nation, May 28, 1874 The question which Dr. Hodge asks he promptly and decisively answers: ‘What is Darwinism? it is atheism.’ Leaving aside all subsidiary and incidental matters, let us consider–1. What the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Gray WHAT IS DARWINISM? The Nation, May 28, 1874 The question which Dr. Hodge …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous review in 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, …
  • … had also considered taking up the issue with Murray in 1874, even threatening to break off future …
  • … laid to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a …
  • … botanical research and had visited Down House in April 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, letters …
  • … A scientific friendship had developed between the men in 1874, and this was enhanced by Romanes’s …
  • … white’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [before 4 November 1874] ).   Testing Pangenesis …
  • … had learned of Lyell’s failing health from Hooker in 1874 and January 1875. On 22 February, he was …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … 9426 - Story-Maskelyne , T. M. to Darwin, [23 April 1874] Thereza Story-Maskelyne …
  • … Letter 9616 - Marshall, T. to Darwin, [September 1874] Theodosia Marshall sends …
  • … 9606 - Harrison, L. C. to Darwin, [22 August 1874] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, sends a …
  • … Letter 9616  - Marshall, T.  to Darwin, [September 1874] Theodosia Marshall details …
  • … Letter 9485 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [8 June 1874] Mary Treat details her experiments …

George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans)

Summary

George Eliot was the pen name of celebrated Victorian novelist Mary Ann Evans (1819-1880). She was born on the outskirts of Nuneaton in Warwickshire and was educated at boarding schools from the age of five until she was 16. Her education ended when she…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … started ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] ). Darwin took Emma to a Sunday afternoon at …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … to Hermanus Hartogh Heijs van Zouteveen, 18 February 1874 ) Zouteveen’s editions of …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … A GRAY 3 AUGUST 1871 201  TO A GRAY 3 JUNE [1874] 202  FROM A GRAY 16 …

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 9580 - Darwin to Darwin, G. H. D., [1 August 1874] Darwin gives feedback on work …
  • … Letter 9613 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [30 August 1874] Darwin comments on a “clever” …

Darwin’s Photographic Portraits

Summary

Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of photography for the study of Expression and Emotions in Man and Animal, but can be witnessed in his many photographic portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … later, would take his camera across the globe to observe the 1874 transit of Venus. Tommy, …
  • … Perfilieff , a member of the Tolstoy family in March of 1874, Darwin included the line “I have the …
  • … newly-produced  carte . Image: Charles Darwin, 1874, Elliot and Fry, Dar 257:11,   …
  • … ©Cambridge University Library Between 1874 and 1878 Darwin was very busy – too busy, …
  • … Darwin’s Pictures: Views of Evolutionary Theory, 1837-1874 . New Haven, USA: Yale University Press, …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the …
  • … experiments on live animals in Britain. In December 1874, Darwin was asked to sign a memorial …

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 9377 : Darwin, C. R. to Abbott, F. E. A., 30 March 1874 Writing to the American …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 9633 - Nevill, D. F. to Darwin, [11 September 1874] Dorothy Nevill tells Darwin …

Clémence Auguste Royer

Summary

Getting Origin translated into French was harder than Darwin had expected. The first translator he approached, Madame Belloc, turned him down on the grounds that the content was ‘too scientific‘, and then in 1860 the French political exile  Pierre…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … This point was not lost on Royer. In 1874 in front of the  Société d’Anthropologie de Paris , she …
  • … before the Societe d’Anthropologie de Paris in 1874. …

Lydia Becker

Summary

Becker was a leading member of the suffrage movement, perhaps best known for publishing the Women’s Suffrage Journal. She was also a successful biologist, astronomer and botanist and, between 1863 and 1877, an occasional correspondent of Charles Darwin. …

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Becker was a leading member of the suffrage movement, perhaps best known for publishing the  …

Titus Coan

Summary

In 1874, when Darwin was preparing the second edition of Descent of Man, he received letters from all over the world in reply to his queries about human behaviour; one in particular would have stirred up unexpected memories of his own time among the native…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1874, when Darwin was preparing the second edition of Descent of Man , he …

Francis Darwin marries

Summary

The Darwins' son, Francis, marries Amy Ruck; Francis starts work as his father's assistant

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' son, Francis, marries Amy Ruck; Francis starts work as his father's assistant …
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