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To Michael Foster   25 April [1874]

Summary

Has received circulars, and contributions from Lyell and George Busk [for Naples biological station].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Michael Foster
Date:  25 Apr [1874]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 4: 71)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9427

Matches: 5 hits

  • … To Michael Foster   25 April [1874] …
  • … Huxley 4: 71) Charles Robert Darwin London, Bryanston St, 2 25 Apr [1874] Michael Foster …
  • … letter from Charles Lyell, 24 April 1874 . CD stayed with Richard Buckley and Henrietta …
  • … see letter to Michael Foster, 23 April [1874] and n.  2). William Turner was professor of …
  • … ODNB ). See letter from Charles Lyell, 24 April 1874 . CD also refers to George Busk. …

From W. B. Dawkins   26 April 1874

Summary

Asks CD’s support for his application for the Chair of Geology at Oxford.

Author:  William Boyd Dawkins
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Apr 1874
Classmark:  DAR 162: 128
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9429

Matches: 3 hits

  • … From W.  B.  Dawkins   26 April 1874
  • … DAR 162: 128 William Boyd Dawkins Manchester 26 Apr 1874 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … 1873 ). John Phillips died on 24 April 1874; he had been professor of geology at Oxford …

From Edward Frankland   26 April 1874

Summary

Bullfinches’ instinctive capacity for removing nectaries from cowslips.

Author:  Edward Frankland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Apr 1874
Classmark:  DAR 164: 210
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9430

Matches: 4 hits

  • … From Edward Frankland   26 April 1874
  • … DAR 164: 210 Edward Frankland London, Lancaster Gate, 14 26 Apr 1874 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … See letter to Nature , 18 April [1874]. In his …
  • … letter to Nature , 7 and 11 May [1874], CD referred to the flowers sent by Frankland, and …

From C. J. Monro   26 April 1874

Summary

Sends cherry blossoms damaged by birds in response to CD’s letter in Nature ["Flowers of the primrose", Collected papers 2: 183–4].

Author:  Cecil James Monro
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Apr 1874
Classmark:  DAR 171: 230
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9428

Matches: 5 hits

  • … From C.  J.  Monro   26 April 1874
  • … DAR 171: 230 Cecil James Monro Barnet 26 Apr 1874 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … s son-in-law. Letter to Nature , 18 April [1874]. The lady has not been identified. CD had …
  • … 1873] ). CD discussed the cherry blossoms in his letter to Nature , 7 and 11 May [1874]. …
  • … Hadley, Barnet 26 April 1874 Sir, I hope you will excuse my troubling you, if there should …

From A. S. G. Canning   27 April 1874

Summary

Further particulars on pea-fowl.

Author:  Albert Stratford George Canning
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 Apr 1874
Classmark:  DAR 161: 43
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9431

Matches: 5 hits

  • … From A.  S.  G.  Canning   27 April 1874
  • … Stratford George Canning London, Portman Square, 31 27 Apr 1874 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … See letters from A.  S.  G.  Canning, 18 February 1874 and …
  • … 23 February 1874. CD’s replies to Canning have not been found. Variation 2d ed.  was …
  • … Square . London. Monday. | April 27 th . | 1874. Dear Sir I am encouraged by your kind …

To Edward Frankland   28 April [1874]

Summary

Thanks for letter relating to domesticated bullfinches’ instinctively cutting off cowslips [see 9430]. Suggests observing whether the birds swallow any part of flower or particular parts.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Frankland
Date:  28 Apr [1874]
Classmark:  The John Rylands Library, The University of Manchester
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9432A

Matches: 4 hits

  • … To Edward Frankland   28 April [1874] …
  • … The University of Manchester Charles Robert Darwin Down 28 Apr [1874] Edward Frankland …
  • … relationship between this letter and the letter from Edward Frankland, 26 April 1874 . See …
  • … letter from Edward Frankland, 26 April 1874 . …

From Albert Günther   28 April 1874

Summary

Thanks for recent edition of CD’s Journal of researches.

Author:  Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf (Albert) Günther
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 Apr 1874
Classmark:  DAR 165: 255
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9432

Matches: 2 hits

  • … From Albert Günther   28 April 1874
  • … Carl Ludwig Gotthilf (Albert) Günther British Museum 28 Apr 1874 Charles Robert Darwin …

From F. S. B. François de Chaumont   29 April 1874

Summary

Observations on early shedding of tears and shrugging of shoulders.

Author:  Francis Stephen Bennet François de Chaumont
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Apr 1874
Classmark:  DAR 162: 139
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9433

Matches: 3 hits

  • … From F.  S.  B.  François de Chaumont   29 April 1874
  • … Bennet François de Chaumont R. Victoria Hosp. , Netley 29 Apr 1874 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … 1861 ( ODNB ). Letter to Nature , 18 April [1874]. CD discussed the age at which infants …

To C. H. Merriam   29 April 1874

Summary

Asks CHM to send his paper.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Clinton Hart Merriam
Date:  29 Apr 1874
Classmark:  Christie’s, New York (dealers) (November 1997)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9433A

Matches: 3 hits

  • … To C.  H.  Merriam   29 April 1874
  • … The reference is to Hayden 1873 (see letter from C.  H.  Merriam, 19 May 1874 ). …
  • … York (dealers) (November 1997) Charles Robert Darwin Down 29 Apr 1874 Clinton Hart Merriam …

From Edward Frankland   30 April 1874

Summary

Variation in bullfinches’ instinctive ability to remove nectaries and ovaries from cowslips.

Author:  Edward Frankland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Apr 1874
Classmark:  DAR 164: 211
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9435

Matches: 5 hits

  • … From Edward Frankland   30 April 1874
  • … DAR 164: 211 Edward Frankland London, Lancaster Gate, 14 30 Apr 1874 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … letter to Edward Frankland, 28 April [1874] . The bird that Frankland observed had come …
  • … on the Isle of Wight (see letter from Edward Frankland, 26 April 1874  and n.  4). The …
  • … from CD’s letter to Nature , 7 and 11 May [1874], where CD quoted from Frankland’s letter. …

To F. S. B. François de Chaumont   30 April 1874

Summary

Agrees to sign FDeC’s certificate for admission to the Royal Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Stephen Bennet François de Chaumont
Date:  30 Apr 1874
Classmark:  Wellcome Library (RAMC/473/4) Trustees of the Army Medical Services Museum
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9434

Matches: 5 hits

  • … To F.  S.  B.  François de Chaumont   30 April 1874
  • … Museum Charles Robert Darwin Down 30 Apr 1874 Francis Stephen Bennet François de Chaumont …
  • … F. S. B. François de Chaumont, 29 April 1874 . The certificate, with CD’s signature, is in …
  • … F. S. B. François de Chaumont, 29 April 1874 and n. 10. CD’s discussion of shrugging was …
  • … Down, | Beckenham, Kent. Ap 30 1874 Dear D r de Chaumont I shall have great pleasure in …
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Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the …
  • … intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a Cambridge friend, …
  • … and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to …
  • … much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). I feel very old & …
  • … old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor …
  • … on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and …
  • … Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] ). Later in the month, …
  • … and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it was ‘all …
  • … perform his antics’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 29 January [1874] ). This did not stop word getting …
  • … at his home ( letter from T. G. Appleton, 2 April 1874 ). Back over old ground New …
  • … Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 …
  • … of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The book came out in June with the …
  • … Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D. Dana, 21 July 1874 ); however, he did not retract his …
  • … dog breeders (letters from George Cupples, 21 February 1874 and 12 March 1874 ); the material …
  • … Islands (Hawaii; letters from T. N. Staley, 12 February 1874 and 20 February 1874 ; letters …
  • … islanders ( letter from William Dealtry, 16 January 1874 ). One of the most significant …
  • … enemy into a jelly’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 14 April 1874 ). The technical nature of Huxley’s …
  • … mind where it goes’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 16 April 1874 ). The second edition of  …
  • … would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Darwin's son George …
  • … of your thought’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 20 April 1874 ). The Mivart affair …
  • … mental and physical disorders (G. H. Darwin 1873b). In July 1874, an anonymous essay appeared in the …
  • … libel’ on his son ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [27 July 1874] ).  George, however, consulted with his …
  • … [a] lying scoundrel’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ). He drafted a brief statement of …

Darwin's 1874 letters go online

Summary

The full transcripts and footnotes of over 600 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1874 are published online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1874 through his letters and see a full list of the letters. The 1874 letters…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … of over 600 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1874 are published online for the first time. …
  • … ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ) The Mivart affair highlights …
  • … are some other highlights from Darwin's correspondence in 1874: I feel as old as …
  • … signifying so much.  ( Letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ) At the age of 65, Darwin …
  • … more quietly was severely tested by some of the events of 1874. He had a clear idea of the shape of …
  • … must be enough for me  ( Letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ) During the year he …
  • … the positive  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 30 August [1874] ) – he mourned after several …
  • … day’s work  ( Letter to D. F. Nevill, 18 September [1874] ) Darwin’s family continued …
  • … have to do—  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 30 November [1874] ) Darwin’s continuing …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … In 1874, the Catholic zoologist St George Jackson Mivart caused Darwin and his son …
  • … appeared to have created very little stir, until, in July 1874, Mivart published an anonymous review …
  • … of the Quarterly ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 29 July 1874 ). Darwin hastily advised against …
  • … to wish to circulate ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ). Darwin provided a draft of the …
  • … to endorse them ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 5 August 1874 ). He sent a second draft, which Darwin …
  • … a fair copy of his letter with his letter of 6 [August] 1874 . George and Darwin were also …
  • … George’s letter to Murray with his letter of 11 August 1874 , and was no doubt relieved to …
  • … to all he asked ( letter from John Murray, 12 August 1874 ). In October, George’s letter …
  • … a Pickwickian sense’ ( letter to John Murray, 18 October 1874 ). In other words, Mivart had used …
  • … reaction was savage ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [6 December 1874] ). Hooker and Huxley between them …
  • … the attack on George ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December 1874 ). Huxley met Mivart at an evening …
  • … ( Enclosure to letter from J. D. Hooker, 21 December 1874 .) A reply soon came from Mivart . …
  • … of a gentleman’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 23 December 1874 ). However, Huxley still wrote to …
  • … this.   124 Gower St W.C. Dec. 24th 1874. Private & Confidential …
  • … to John Tyndall ( letter from John Tyndall, 28 December 1874 , and letter from J. D. Hooker, 29 …
  • … 16 January 1875, p. 66, signed, ‘The Quarterly Reviewer of 1874’. In it he reiterated his claim that …

Joseph Simms

Summary

The American doctor and author of works on physiognomy Joseph Simms wrote to Darwin on 14 September 1874, while he was staying in London. He enclosed a copy of his book Nature’s revelations of character (Simms 1873). He hoped it might 'prove…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … physiognomy Joseph Simms wrote to Darwin on 14 September 1874 , while he was staying in London. …
  • … stockings. (Letter from Joseph Simms, 14 September 1874 ) The foot could tell …

Essay: What is Darwinism?

Summary

—by Asa Gray WHAT IS DARWINISM? The Nation, May 28, 1874 The question which Dr. Hodge asks he promptly and decisively answers: ‘What is Darwinism? it is atheism.’ Leaving aside all subsidiary and incidental matters, let us consider–1. What the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Gray WHAT IS DARWINISM? The Nation, May 28, 1874 The question which Dr. Hodge …

Essay: Evolution & theology

Summary

—by Asa Gray EVOLUTION AND THEOLOGY The Nation, January 15, 1874 The attitude of theologians toward doctrines of evolution, from the nebular hypothesis down to ‘Darwinism,’ is no less worthy of consideration, and hardly less diverse, than that of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … EVOLUTION AND THEOLOGY The Nation, January 15, 1874 The attitude of theologians toward …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous review in 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, …
  • … had also considered taking up the issue with Murray in 1874, even threatening to break off future …
  • … laid to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a …
  • … botanical research and had visited Down House in April 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, letters …
  • … A scientific friendship had developed between the men in 1874, and this was enhanced by Romanes’s …
  • … white’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [before 4 November 1874] ).   Testing Pangenesis …
  • … had learned of Lyell’s failing health from Hooker in 1874 and January 1875. On 22 February, he was …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … 9426 - Story-Maskelyne , T. M. to Darwin, [23 April 1874] Thereza Story-Maskelyne …
  • … Letter 9616 - Marshall, T. to Darwin, [September 1874] Theodosia Marshall sends …
  • … 9606 - Harrison, L. C. to Darwin, [22 August 1874] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, sends a …
  • … Letter 9616  - Marshall, T.  to Darwin, [September 1874] Theodosia Marshall details …
  • … Letter 9485 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [8 June 1874] Mary Treat details her experiments …

George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans)

Summary

George Eliot was the pen name of celebrated Victorian novelist Mary Ann Evans (1819-1880). She was born on the outskirts of Nuneaton in Warwickshire and was educated at boarding schools from the age of five until she was 16. Her education ended when she…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … started ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] ). Darwin took Emma to a Sunday afternoon at …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … to Hermanus Hartogh Heijs van Zouteveen, 18 February 1874 ) Zouteveen’s editions of …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … A GRAY 3 AUGUST 1871 201  TO A GRAY 3 JUNE [1874] 202  FROM A GRAY 16 …

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 9580 - Darwin to Darwin, G. H. D., [1 August 1874] Darwin gives feedback on work …
  • … Letter 9613 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [30 August 1874] Darwin comments on a “clever” …

Darwin’s Photographic Portraits

Summary

Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of photography for the study of Expression and Emotions in Man and Animal, but can be witnessed in his many photographic portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … later, would take his camera across the globe to observe the 1874 transit of Venus. Tommy, …
  • … Perfilieff , a member of the Tolstoy family in March of 1874, Darwin included the line “I have the …
  • … newly-produced  carte . Image: Charles Darwin, 1874, Elliot and Fry, Dar 257:11,   …
  • … ©Cambridge University Library Between 1874 and 1878 Darwin was very busy – too busy, …
  • … Darwin’s Pictures: Views of Evolutionary Theory, 1837-1874 . New Haven, USA: Yale University Press, …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the …
  • … experiments on live animals in Britain. In December 1874, Darwin was asked to sign a memorial …

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 9377 : Darwin, C. R. to Abbott, F. E. A., 30 March 1874 Writing to the American …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 9633 - Nevill, D. F. to Darwin, [11 September 1874] Dorothy Nevill tells Darwin …

Clémence Auguste Royer

Summary

Getting Origin translated into French was harder than Darwin had expected. The first translator he approached, Madame Belloc, turned him down on the grounds that the content was ‘too scientific‘, and then in 1860 the French political exile  Pierre…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … This point was not lost on Royer. In 1874 in front of the  Société d’Anthropologie de Paris , she …
  • … before the Societe d’Anthropologie de Paris in 1874. …

Lydia Becker

Summary

Becker was a leading member of the suffrage movement, perhaps best known for publishing the Women’s Suffrage Journal. She was also a successful biologist, astronomer and botanist and, between 1863 and 1877, an occasional correspondent of Charles Darwin. …

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Becker was a leading member of the suffrage movement, perhaps best known for publishing the  …

Titus Coan

Summary

In 1874, when Darwin was preparing the second edition of Descent of Man, he received letters from all over the world in reply to his queries about human behaviour; one in particular would have stirred up unexpected memories of his own time among the native…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1874, when Darwin was preparing the second edition of Descent of Man , he …

Francis Darwin marries

Summary

The Darwins' son, Francis, marries Amy Ruck; Francis starts work as his father's assistant

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' son, Francis, marries Amy Ruck; Francis starts work as his father's assistant …
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