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From John Michels   3 May 1870

Summary

Sends drawings of atypical Geranium and honeysuckle pollen-grains. Would they produce variation in seedlings?

Author:  John Michels
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 May 1870
Classmark:  DAR 171: 175
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10495

From E. A. Darwin   [1870–81]

Summary

Share dealings.

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1870–81]]
Classmark:  DAR 105: 111
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12379

To V. O. Kovalevsky   22 February [1870]

Summary

"I have received a very large box full of beautiful tea from Russia yesterday … my life is as regular & monotonous as a clock.

I make sure, but wofully slow progress, with my new book."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Vladimir Onufrievich Kovalevsky (Владимир Онуфриевич Ковалевский)
Date:  22 Feb [1870]
Classmark:  J. A. Stargardt (dealer) (17 March 1995); Swann Auction Galleries (dealers) (1 October 1953)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13060

To W. E. Darwin   22 February [1870–9?]

Summary

Seeks investment advice.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  22 Feb [1870-9]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 131
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13799

To W. E. Darwin   [1870–82]

Summary

Two letters have arrived for WED.

Joseph has had two teeth out.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [1870–82]
Classmark:  Christie’s (dealers) (17 November 1995)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13799F

From Rowland H. Wedgwood   [1870–82]

Summary

An instance of long memory in a horse.

Author:  Rowland Henry Wedgwood
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1870–82]
Classmark:  G. J. Romanes (1882): 330
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13855A

From Charles Wicksted to Georgina Tollet   13 March [1870?]

Summary

Jury of fox-hunters report on hounds’ behaviour when catching fox. Fox never behaves like frightened dog.

Author:  Charles Wicksted
Addressee:  Georgina Tollet
Date:  13 Mar [1870?]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 97
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13857

To?   [1870–82]

Summary

Printed acknowledgment of the receipt of a letter.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  [1870–82]
Classmark:  DAR 133: 1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13859

To [?]   23 August [1870–80]

Summary

Discusses evolution of species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  23 Aug [1870-80]
Classmark:  Charles Hamilton (dealer) (3 November 1966)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13884

To ?   [1870–82]

Summary

Query [possibly for publication] on ridges and furrows in pasture-land that had been ploughed long ago. Gives directions for measuring ridges on sloping land.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  [1870–82]
Classmark:  DAR 63: 87
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13885

From Benjamin Clarke   1 November [1870]

Summary

Sends CD some Indian corn seeds to demonstrate the extreme effect sometimes producible on progeny by the mutilation of a parent.

Writes of a recent book.

Author:  Benjamin Clarke
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Nov [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 261.11: 26 (EH 88206077)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5662

From St G. J. Mivart   [25 June 1870?]

Summary

Sets a time for CD to call.

Author:  St George Jackson Mivart
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [25 June 1870?]
Classmark:  DAR 171: 181
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5927

From Francis Darwin   [before 4 January 1870]

Summary

Humphrey does not think more bones in female os coccyx than in male. Because of maceration it is impossible to compare male and female skeletons. Has another coach while Stuart ill.

Author:  Francis Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 4 Jan 1870]
Classmark:  DAR 274.1: 18
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6520F

From Alice Bonham-Carter to Emma Darwin   25 January [1870]

Summary

Sends a translation of two sentences [on floral structure] as requested by Henrietta Darwin.

Author:  Alice Bonham-Carter
Addressee:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Date:  25 Jan [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 160: 240
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6576

From Gilbert William Child   26 January [1870]

Summary

Sends 2d ed. of his Essays on physiological subjects (1869).

Author:  Gilbert William Child
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Jan [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 161: 141
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6579

From William Boyd Dawkins   29 January [1870]

Summary

Discovery of skull of "River-bed" race of man near Corwen.

Author:  William Boyd Dawkins
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Jan [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 162: 122
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6582

To Alexander Agassiz   [23 October 1870?]

Summary

Suggests time for AA to visit.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Agassiz
Date:  [23 Oct 1870?]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6595

To [?]   12 February [1870–82]

Summary

Send information about the bust of himself by Thomas Woolner and suggests applying to the sculptor himself about a cast.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  12 Feb [1870-82]
Classmark:  Erbengemeinschaft Alberts (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6611F

From G. W. Child   16 February [1870]

Summary

Criticises chapter on good effect of crossing in Variation: (1) does not accept that inbreeding alone results in degeneracy; (2) good effects of crossing exaggerated; (3) denies deleterious effects of close marriage in humans.

Author:  Gilbert William Child
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Feb [1870]
Classmark:  DAR 161: 142
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6617

From J. D. Hooker   [7 March 1870]

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Summary

Does not give much for botanical results of Round Island, but the zoology is wonderful.

Lyell’s new book [The student’s elements of geology (1870)]. Urges Lyell to make it Elementary principles.

Grove is disgusted with CD for being disquieted by William Thomson: "Take another dose of Huxley’s penultimate address to Geol. Soc." [Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 25 (1869): 28–53].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [7 Mar 1870]
Classmark:  DAR 103: 42–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6646
Document type
letter (382)
Date
1870
01 (32)
02 (39)
03 (34)
04 (26)
05 (34)
06 (51)
07 (37)
08 (22)
09 (20)
10 (26)
11 (37)
12 (24)
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Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The …
  • … machine’  ( letter to Charles Lyell, 25 December [1870] ). Finishing Descent; …
  • … some weeks’  ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on …
  • … I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had previously read proof-sheets …
  • … shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta disagreed: ‘Certainly …
  • … of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). Darwin was also encouraged …
  • … sense of mankind’ ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in …
  • … great philosophy?’ ( letter from F. P. Cobbe, 28 March [1870?] ). Humans as animals: ears …
  • … [1868] ; this volume, letter to Thomas Woolner, 10 March [1870] ). Darwin included Woolner’s …
  • … findings ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 15 March 1870 ). Indeed, Darwin noted the same …
  • … bane of existence!’ ( letter to William Ogle, 9 November 1870 ). Researching expression: …
  • … spirits were white ( letter from W. W. Reade, 9 November 1870 ). Keen for more evidence of …
  • … hurting it much?’ ( letter to A. D. Bartlett, 5 January [1870] ). Darwin made a similar request of …
  • … not succeed’ ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 8 June [1870] ). Darwin’s queries were part …
  • … of a baby’s brows ( letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [5 May 1870] ). He also wrote to a leading Dutch …
  • … on this subject’  ( letter from F. C. Donders, 17 May 1870 ). Human evolution: debates and …
  • … more fully in a collection of essays published in April 1870 (Wallace 1870a). Wallace wrote to …
  • … naturalist’ (letter to A. R.Wallace, 26 January [1870]). Despite their increasing …
  • … in one sense rivals’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 20 April [1870] ). Darwin alluded here to the …
  • … No one but yourself’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 20 May 1870 ). Darwin very rarely used the …
  • … never  write reviews’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, [22 May 1870] ). St George Jackson Mivart …
  • … to answer objectors’ ( letter to W. H. Flower, 25 March [1870] ). In his letters to Mivart, Darwin …
  • … on the Primates’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 April [1870] ). He also tried to recruit Mivart’s …
  • … lump of granite’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 22 April 1870 ). Mivart hinted that his …
  • … his “origin” ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 25 April 1870 ). In his critical essays (later revised …
  • … Charles Darwin et ses précurseurs français  (Quatrefages 1870), that gave a detailed account, as …
  • … many others’  ( letter to Armand de Quatrefages, 28 May [1870] ). Quatrefages had …
  • … discord’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 30 March 1870 ). In proposing Darwin for election, …
  • … them’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 18 July 1870 ). The assertion had been made by Emile …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … Brooke, C.A.J. 30 Nov 1870 Sarawak, Borneo …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 15 March 1870 West Riding …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 18 March 1870 Down, Kent, …
  • … Donders, F.C. 27 May 1870 Utrecht, Netherlands …
  • … Forbes, David 13 June 1870 Portman Square, London W. …
  • … Nicol, Patrick 13 May 1870 Sussex Lunatic Asylum, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. [c.8 or 9 Apr 1870] Accra, West …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 4 June 1870 Lagos, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 3 Sept 1870 Conservative Club, St …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 9 Nov 1870 11 St Mary Abbot's …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. [25 May 1870] Bedford, Cape of Good …
  • … Weir, J.J. 27 June 1870 Blackheath, London, England …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before …
  • … Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to …
  • … Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to Darwin, [29 April 1870] George Cupples tells Darwin about a …

Francis Darwin

Summary

Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … honours in the natural sciences tripos in December 1870. The small amount of surviving …
  • … I appear to you’ (letter to Francis Darwin,  18 October [1870] ). Subsequently Francis …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … behaviour of her dog (letter from J. L. Gray, 14 February 1870 ), she also passed on information …

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms featured in the news announcement in May 2014 that a citizen science project had been launched to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … on my mind’ ( letter to W. T. Preyer, 17 February [1870 ])) that without earthworms aerating the …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … more litters & no happy results”, he wrote on 26 April 1870 . In the following year, Galton …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Audio of more …

Darwin and Gender Projects by Harvard Students

Summary

Working in collaboration with Professor Sarah Richardson and Dr Myrna Perez, Darwin Correspondence Project staff developed a customised set of 'Darwin and Gender' themed resources for a course on Gender, Sex and Evolution first taught at Harvard…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … grateful I shall be.”(Letter to Darwin, H. E., [8 Feb 1870] ) Although Miranda acknowledges that …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ideas to humans.  After his election as MP for Maidstone in 1870, Lubbock tried at Darwin’s request …
  • … Lubbock’s Origin of civilisation , published in 1870 as Darwin was completing Descent, was …
  • … good of my internal viscera’ ( to John Lubbock, 21 July [1870] ). It seems what principally gave …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … you owe any more … Darwin to his son Francis, 1870. …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, …
  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … & I feel deeply for you. ( Letter to F. C. Donders, 19 May 1870 )     …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …
  • … Letter 7329 – Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7314 - Kovalevsky, S. to Darwin, [1 September 1870] Sophia Kovalevsky accepts …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7145 : Darwin to Cobbe, F. P. 23 March [1870?] Darwin met the religious writer and …
  • … Letter 7149 : Cobbe, F. P. to Darwin, 28 March [1870?] "I more than suspect you of a …

Power of movement in plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Family experiments Darwin was an active and engaged father during his children's youth, involving them in his experiments and even occasionally using them as observational subjects. When his children…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 7346 - Darwin to Francis Darwin, 18 October 1870 Darwin writes to Francis to …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … the basis for a new German edition (Bronn and Carus trans. 1870), prepared by Julius Victor Carus, …
  • … own evolutionary views and critical commentary (Royer trans. 1870). Darwin complained to Hooker, …
  • … work some hours daily’ ( letter to Anton Dohrn, 4 January 1870 ). Darwin’s health was generally …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Morning Star in 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75, 1 February 1872, p. 66). The …
  • … of a prize for a humane trap ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). The prize was still …
  • … England and Wales every night ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). Under these circumstances, …
  • … Star , 8 December 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). 5 Animal baiting, …
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