Physician, publisher and bookseller. Studied medicine in Paris and then at St George's Hospital, London, from 1844. Publisher and bookseller at 142 Strand until 1860. Editor and proprietor of the Westminster Review, 1851–94. M.D., St Andrews, 1857; practised as a physician. Advocated the application of an ice-bag to the spine as a remedy particularly for sea-sickness and cholera.
(See the bibliography for full references to sources)