Physician and military surgeon. MD, Edinburgh, 1853; LRCS 1853; FRCS 1864. Assistant surgeon with the Army Medical Department, 1854; surgeon, 1865, surgeon-major, 1876. Served with the Rifle Brigade in the Crimea in 1855. Assistant professor of military hygiene, Army Medical School, Netley hospital, 1863–76; professor, 1876–88.
Sources: Edinburgh Academy register, 1914Modern English biography. (See the bibliography for full references to sources)