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Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 26 hits

  • the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye to the crafting of his legacy.  …
  • animals  in November, the year marked the culmination of a programme of publication that can be
  • in relation to sex , published in 1871, these books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job
  • himself without writing anything more on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to A. …
  • earthworms in shaping the environmentThe former led to a series of books and papers, and the
  • years before. In his private life also, Darwin was in a nostalgic frame of mind, picking up
  • June the previous yearHe intended the edition to be a popular one that would bring his most
  • should be affordable: ‘do you not think 6s is too dear for a cheap Edit? Would not 5s be better? . . …
  • set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from RFCooke, 12 February 1872 ). …
  • translations of both  Descent  and  Origin   was a particular frustration: `I naturally desire
  • unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November 1872 ). To
  • letter to St GJMivart,  11 January [1872] ). A worsening breach The criticisms
  • in the sixth edition were those made by Mivart himself. In a new chapter onmiscellaneous
  • of Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ). …
  • Mivart was among those who wrote in January to wish Darwin a happy new year, before the month was
  • break down. Mivarts book had been followed by a highly critical and anonymously published review of
  • his defence, and along with his good wishes Mivart enclosed a copy of an article replying to Thomas
  • … , and he complained to the German zoologist Anton Dohrn on 3 February that Mivarts book had &#039
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • Other correspondents were not so accommodating: Anton Dohrn, who had written to report on progress
  • agreed to let them have it for love!!!’ ( letter from RFCooke, 1 August 1872 ). It had
  • …  & have not taken care of ourselves’ ( letter from RFCooke, 20 November 1872 ). A
  • in the face of a disappointed public ( letter from RFCooke, 25 November 1872 ). Among those
  • Mary Lloyd, were vying to read it first ( letter from FPCobbe, [26 November 1872] ). …
  • darkness by an industrial strike ( letter from RFCooke, 6 December 1872 ).  Caught out by the
  • reward to which any scientific man can look’ ( letter to FCDonders, 29 April [1872] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 24 hits

  • mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A vicious dispute over an anonymous
  • von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt to Humboldt, whom he had
  • one of the greatest men the world has ever produced. He gave a wonderful impetus to science by
  • to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused
  • old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to London, staying
  • world. While Darwin was in London, his son George organised a séance at Erasmuss house. The event
  • William Henry Myers, and Thomas Henry Huxley, who sent a long report to Darwin with the spirit
  • America of thestrange newsthat Darwin had alloweda spirit séanceat his home ( letter from T
  • Coral reefs His son Horace had suggested a new edition of the coral book in December 1873, …
  • … [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble in finding a copy. Having sent back his own to the
  • the help of his daughter Henrietta, whom he thought  ‘a good dear girl to take so sweetly all the
  • account for the absence of coral-reefs in some areas, and a volcano cannot affect the whole
  • remained stationary ( Coral reefs , p. vi). On receiving a presentation copy, Dana sent an apology
  • his revision of  Coral reefs,  Darwin went to work on a new edition of  Descent . In the preface
  • and 12 March 1874 ); the material was summarised in a note about how breedersselective
  • Honolulu, Thomas Nettleship Staley, and Titus Munson Coan, a physician in New York whose parents had
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • more in my life than this days work’ ( letter to D. F. Nevill, 18 September [1874] ).Franciss
  • structure and mechanism that Darwin agreed with ( letter to F. J. Cohn, 12 October 1874 ). Darwin
  • she valued the photograph he sent highly ( letter from D. F. Nevill, [11 September 1874] ). …
  • of his children shedding tears as tiny babies ( letter from F. S. B. François de Chaumont, 29 April
  • the occasion arose. He continued to provide support to Anton Dohrns Zoological Station at Naples, …
  • edition was published in January 1875 ( letter from C.-F. Reinwald , 4 February 1874 ). Barbier

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  On the origin of …
  • … his cousin William Darwin Fox, ‘My work will have to stop a bit for I must prepare a new edit. of …
  • … views on all points will have to be modified.— Well it is a beginning, & that is something’ ( …
  • … Darwin’s most substantial addition to  Origin  was a response to a critique of natural selection …
  • … of species. Darwin correctly assessed Nägeli’s theory as a major challenge requiring a thorough and …
  • … morphological features (Nägeli 1865, p. 29). Darwin sent a manuscript of his response (now missing) …
  • … to J. D. Hooker, 13 January 1869 ). Hooker went straight to a crucial point: ‘I do not quite like …
  • … however favourable, would not be preserved within a breeding population. Such variations, according …
  • … by emphasising variability within the breeding population as a whole; if a sufficient number of …
  • … that single variations [i.e., variations that occurred in a single individual] might be preserved …
  • … by admitting that the survival of tropical species was a difficulty for his theory ( Origin  4th …
  • … that ice ages alternated between hemispheres, so that a warmer, non-glaciated hemisphere where …
  • … to Sir W. Thompson, for I require for my theoretical views a very long period  before  the …
  • … George Cupples worked hard on Darwin’s behalf, sending a steady stream of information on the …
  • … with several answers to his questionnaire: ‘Passing slowly a common country cargo boat, the old man …
  • … patients In addition to infants and non-Europeans, a group that particularly interested …
  • … Pauper Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield. Crichton-Browne sent a lengthy reply, adding: ‘Should the sort …
  • … had ambitions to make the asylum at Wakefield a centre of scientific research, and toward this end …
  • … that Darwin had investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a letter to …
  • … Brusina, 29 April 1869 ). The German zoologist Anton Dohrn solicited Darwin’s support for a new …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 18 hits

  • in this botanical research, eventually renouncing plans for a medical career to become his fathers
  • and he was clearly delighted by Franciss decision. A large portion of the letters Darwin
  • occasional criticisms, some of which were incorporated in a later edition. Darwin also contributed
  • in science were manifest in his leading roles in creating a private memorial fund for Thomas Henry
  • the main focus of Darwins study of insectivorous plants, a group that also included the Venus fly
  • and even electrical stimulation. On sending Darwin a specimen of the carnivorous  Drosophyllum
  • tentacles to bend inward, so that the plant closed like a fist. Darwin was fascinated by this
  • seemed analogous to muscular contraction in animals: “a nerve is toucheda sensation is felt” ( …
  • research on insectivorous plants involved collaboration with a wide range of experts, including the
  • assistance of William Turner Thiselton-Dyer, was engaged in a taxonomic study of the pitcher plant,  …
  • on plant movement and digestion led him to seek help from a different quarter, experimental
  • Emanuel Klein at the Brown Animal Sanatory Institution, a centre of medical research in London. On
  • Handbooks other contributors, Thomas Lauder Brunton, a specialist in pharmacology, and John Scott
  • had known effects on animals. To test whether the plants had a nerve-like structure, Darwin
  • delivered to the Brown Institution. Burdon Sanderson used a galvanometer (a device for detecting and
  • truth of the great principle of inheritance!” ( letter to F. S. B. F. de Chaumont, 3 February [1873
  • Darwin had corresponded with the German zoologist Anton Dohrn, and had supported his efforts to
  • we should feel it a privilege to offer” ( letter from E. F. Lubbock, [before 7 April 1873] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’ Darwin confessed in January1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months. January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … about species, and botanical research had often been a source of personal satisfaction, providing …
  • … intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for some nine months. …
  • … ‘I am slaving away solely at making detestably bad English a very little less bad.’ The …
  • … edition of Climbing plants , which he hoped to publish in a single volume along with the material …
  • … by various controversies. January saw the conclusion of a long-running dispute with the zoologist St …
  • … year, he campaigned vigorously against the blackballing of a young zoologist, Edwin Ray Lankester, …
  • … In January, the protracted dispute with Mivart came to a close. The final chapter of the controversy …
  • … On 8 January , he told Hooker: ‘I will write a savage letter & that will do me some good, if I …
  • … with much advice and assistance from his family, he sent a curt note to Mivart on 12 January , …
  • … Hooker and Thomas Henry Huxley. Because Mivart was a distinguished zoologist, a fellow of the …
  • … journalism, depicting the anonymous reviewer (Mivart) as a blind antagonist of ‘all things Darwinian …
  • … have also greatly honoured George. You have indeed been a true friend.’ Hooker was hampered by his …
  • … he told Hooker on 17 January , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwin’s ire …
  • … of science when the chance arose. On 28 January , he sent a note on Royal Society business to …
  • … & I wish to take every opportunity of saying how false a man I consider him to be.’   The …
  • … was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a memorial on the practice of …
  • … Cobbe was an acquaintance of the Darwins and part of a circle of philanthropists that included …
  • … the evolution of the moral sense, and shared with Darwin a great fondness for dogs (see …
  • … and legal experts in April and May, and in various drafts of a bill that was presented to the House …
  • … opinion on vivisection, the government decided to appoint a Royal Commission to advise on future …
  • … with visiting positions under Haeckel at Jena and Dohrn at Naples. Darwin had expressed his desire …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … was far more extensive than Darwin had anticipated. As a result,  Descent , like  Variation , …
  • … the material on emotion; it would eventually appear as a separate book in 1872 ( Expression of the …
  • … Lyell, ‘thank all the powers above & below, I shall be a man again & not a horrid grinding …
  • … eighteen years of age. Darwin clearly expected her to make a considerable contribution, instructing …
  • … He worried that parts of the book were ‘too like a Sermon: who wd ever have thought that I shd. turn …
  • … disagreed: ‘Certainly to have you turned Parson will be a change I expect I shall want it enlarging …
  • … looking exclusively into his own mind’, and himself, ‘a degraded wretch looking from the outside …
  • … side of human descent. On 7 March 1870, Darwin made a note on the shape of human ears: ‘W. has seen …
  • … made drawings of ears of monkeys & shortly afterwards he saw a man with tip & instantly …
  • … statue of Puck, the mischievous fairy in Shakespeare’s  A midsummer night’s dream.  Darwin …
  • … sketch in  Descent , and discussed the ‘tip’ as a rudimentary organ, describing its frequency and …
  • … 1: 22-3). Humans as animals: facial muscles A more troubling anatomical feature for …
  • … photographs, later used by Darwin in  Expression , showed a man whose platysma was severely …
  • … most avid observers of facial expression. Browne sent a lengthy account of the movements of the …
  • … research on emotions continued to draw on observations from a variety of domains, from the colonial …
  • … screams: ‘does it wrinkle up the skin round the eyes like a Baby always does? . . Could you make it …
  • … with infants, including his niece Lucy Wedgwood, who sent a sketch of a baby’s brows ( letter from …
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