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To William Bowman   16 May [1869–81]

Summary

"I shall not be in London on Monday, but I have written to my Brother to ask him to aid you"

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bowman, 1st baronet
Date:  16 May [1869-81]
Classmark:  George Houle Autographs (dealer) (Catalogue 61 or 81, March 1992)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13781

To Adolph Reuter   24 July [1869]

Summary

Thanks for facts on inheritance. May be used if CD corrects 3d ed. [2d ed.] of Variation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Adolf Reuter
Date:  24 July [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 147: 297
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13837

To ?   2 May [1869 or later]

Summary

"When a man has laboured hard in science & has proved that he is capable of original research, he may [some]times indulge in speculation [&] the public will indulge him. But even in this case it is a common error to speculate too largely, for speculation is far easier than observation or experiments . . ."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  2 May [1869-82]
Classmark:  Sotheby’s (dealers) (28 March 1983)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13866A

To Richard Kippist   31 January [1869?]

Summary

"You are most perfectly welcome to Fragmenta [F. J. H. von Mueller Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae (1858–64)], & I shall be delighted if they are of the slightest use to you."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Richard Kippist
Date:  31 Jan [1869?]
Classmark:  Linnean Society of London (pasted in Mueller 1858–82, vol. 1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3426A

To Benjamin Dann Walsh   3 April [1869]

Summary

Glad BDW has proved his case on dimorphism of Cynips.

Interested in galls

and BDW’s Cicada articles [Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philadelphia (1864)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Benjamin Dann Walsh
Date:  3 Apr [1869]
Classmark:  Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Walsh 17)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5482

From J. D. Hooker   14 [January] 1869

Summary

Oliver overlooked CD’s request about rutaceous flowers. Of precisely which points about the ovules does CD want illustrations?

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 [Jan] 1869
Classmark:  DAR 48: A78, DAR 103: 3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5729

To George Howard Darwin   6 February [1869]

Summary

John Lubbock regrets GHD did not take the Eton post. JL thinks scientific masters will soon occupy places as high and as profitable as classical masters.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Howard Darwin
Date:  6 Feb [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 210.1: 4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5843

To Charles Lyell   [3 November 1869]

Summary

Takes "much to heart" solar evidence for short age of the earth. Cites evidence for "long endurance of our existing continents". Comments on process of denudation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [3 Nov 1869]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.346)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5974

To ?   6 April [1869–71]

Summary

"My experiment was intended solely to show that colour reappeared, and I choose kinds which breed [true] to colour, as is certainly the case with [sports] and those which I tried . . .

I have recorded an undoubted case of wild rock Pigeons caught in Scotland having bred in confinement …"

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  6 Apr [1869-71]
Classmark:  L’Autographe S.A. (dealers) (Catalogue 21)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6098A

From W. W. Reade   28 June [1869]

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Summary

Horned rams of Guinea sheep.

CD’s queries about expression are too difficult for him to answer.

Author:  William Winwood Reade
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 June [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 86: A32–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6260

To Scientific Opinion   [before 20 October 1869]

Summary

Replies to F. Delpino’s criticisms of Pangenesis [Sci. Opin. 2 (1869): 365–7, 391–3, 407–8], especially concerning the difficulty of explaining the regrowth of amputated organs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Scientific Opinion
Date:  [before 20 Oct 1869]
Classmark:  Scientific Opinion 2 (1869): 426.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6442

From John Lubbock   [after 5 August 1869]

Summary

Visiting arrangements.

Author:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 5 Aug 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 170: 70
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6519

From Francis Darwin   [before 8 May 1869]

Summary

Reports what he must pay for university courses. Forgets what CD wants to know about vermiform appendage.

Author:  Francis Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 8 May 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 274.1: 12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6519F

From E. A. Darwin   [after 21 April 1869]

Summary

Discusses CD’s health and James Paget’s "verdict".

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 21 Apr 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B65
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6521

From George Henslow   [after 22 February 1869]

Summary

Sends information from a Kent sheep-breeder.

Author:  George Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 22 February1869]
Classmark:  DAR 166: 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6522

From James Paget   [1869]

Summary

"I enclose a note from Lord Fitzwilliam about his horse with zebra-marks. The case seems as striking as I believed."

Author:  James Paget, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1869]
Classmark:  Paget ed. 1901, p. 408
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6533

From Margaret Susan Vaughan Williams to Henrietta Emma Darwin   [after 14 October 1869]

Summary

Describes expression of her baby when crying.

Author:  Margaret Susan Wedgwood; Margaret Susan Vaughan Williams
Addressee:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  [after 14 Oct 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 180: 4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6535

From E. A. Darwin   26 [November 1869 or later]

Summary

Has seen J. J. Sylvester again.

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 [Nov 1869 or later]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B66
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6539

To William Thierry Preyer   [before 21 March 1869]

Summary

Replies to inquiries about his life and career.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Thierry (William) Preyer
Date:  [before 21 Mar 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 147: 262–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6540

From Vladimir Onofrievich Kovalevsky   [January–March 1869]

Summary

Has written to Moscow about translations of Origin. Wishes to translate additions to the fifth English edition and print them as a supplement.

Pleased by CD’s high opinion of Alexander Kovalevsky.

Author:  Vladimir Onufrievich (Владимир Онуфриевич Ковалевский) Kovalevsky
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Jan–Mar 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 169: 54
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6541
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Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition …
  • … that is something’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [22 January 1869] ). Much of the remainder of …
  • … to be the case’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 January 1869 ). Hooker went straight to a crucial …
  • … probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , and letter from A. R. Wallace, …
  • … in distribution’ ( letter to James Croll, 31 January [1869] ). Darwin had argued ( Origin , pp. …
  • … formation’ ( letter to James Croll,  31 January [1869] ). Croll could not supply Darwin with an …
  • … have got that yet’ ( letter from James Croll, 4 February 1869 ).  Darwin did not directly …
  • … towards [Thomson]’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 19 March [1869] ). Towards Descent …
  • … ‘everlasting old Origin’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 1 June [1869] ), he was able to return to work on  …
  • … ( letter from Robert Elliot to George Cupples, 21 June 1869 ).  Details on mating behaviour …
  • … in the garden ( letter from Frederick Smith, 8 October 1869 ). Albert Günther, assistant in the …
  • … varieties ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 25 February [1869] ). The data contined to …
  • … cocks & hens.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 November [1869] ). Yet completion of the work was …
  • … for  Descent . Researching emotion In 1869, Darwin still expected that  Descent …
  • … hatred—’ ( from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May [1869] ). James Crichton-Browne and …
  • … ( enclosure to letter from Henry Maudsley, 20 May 1869 ). Darwin had often complained of the …
  • … in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More remarkable still were Wallace …
  • … seem to you like some mental hallucination’ ( 18 April 1869 ). Since his marriage to Annie …
  • …  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and scolded him for again being too …
  • … demands justice’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). Proceeding on all fronts …
  • … South American cordillera ( letter to Charles Lyell, 20 May 1869 ), and fossil discoveries in …
  • … investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a letter to the  Gardeners …
  • … of the soil ( letter to  Gardeners’ Chronicle , 9 May [1869] ). In March, Darwin received …
  • … in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This research contributed to  …
  • … editions ( see letter from Victor Masson, 29 September 1869 ). The work had been undertaken, like …
  • … Animals”’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 19 November [1869] ). Angered by these proceedings, Darwin …
  • … of Fritz Müller’s  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. 1869). The book, an explication of Darwinian …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Crichton-Browne, James 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 19 May 1869 West Riding …
  • … Gray, Asa 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Jane 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about …
  • … King, P.G. 25 Feb 1869 Sydney, Australia …
  • … Maudsley, Henry 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 17 Jan 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 28 June [1869] Sierra Leone, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 26 Dec 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa …
  • … Scott, John 2 July 1869 Royal Botanic Gardens, …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • … Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwin’s niece, Margaret, …
  • … Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John Scott responds to Darwin’s …
  • …  - Darwin to  Gunther, A. C. L. G., [21 September 1869] Darwin asks Gunther for “a great …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … (letter from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May 1869 ) Darwin cited Gray’s …
  • … their year long trip to Europe and North Africa in 1868 to 1869, the Grays visited Charles and Emma …
  • … 1868, and visiting again on their return journey in August 1869. Although they never met again, the …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Becker tells Darwin that …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Suffragist and …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work on human expression. Donders visited Darwin in 1869 , and a year later Darwin consoled him …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Towards the end of 1862, Darwin resolved to build a small hothouse at Down House, for ‘experimental purposes’ (see Correspondence vol. 10, letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1862], and volume 10, letter to Thomas Rivers, 15 January 1863). The decision…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … comprised two halves kept at different temperatures, and in 1869 Darwin told the botanist William …
  • … temperatures’ (letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March [1869] ,  Calendar  no. 6661). …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … vol. 17, letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). His views were presented more fully in a …
  • … comparative anatomist through his work on primates. In July 1869, Mivart published the first of a …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] Darwin thanks Antoinette …

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … " Letter 6728 : from Charles Lyell, 5 May 1869 "I feel that …
  • … Letter 6866 : From Federico Delpino, 22 August 1869 "Perhaps because of intellectual …

John Beddoe

Summary

In 1869, when gathering data on sexual selection in humans, Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with John Beddoe, a doctor in Bristol. He was looking for evidence that racial differences that appear to have no benefit in terms of survival - and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1869 Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with a John Beddoe, a doctor in …

Suggested reading

Summary

  Contemporary writing Anon., The English matron: A practical manual for young wives, (London, 1846). Anon., The English gentlewoman: A practical manual for young ladies on their entrance to society, (Third edition, London, 1846). Becker, L. E.…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … A. L. B.,  Studies in general science , (New York, 1869). Buckley, A.,  The fairy-land …
  • … M.,  On molecular and microscopic science ,  (London, 1869). Treat, M., ‘ Is the valve …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … himself an injustice & never demands justice” (14 April 1869). But Wallace continued, both …
  • … about the application of natural selection to ‘man’ in 1869, and looked instead to a ‘higher …
  • … investigation (see letter from A. R. Wallace, 18 April [1869]). Wallace’s views on man were also …
  • … the “great General” (letter to Charles Kingsley, 7 May 1869). In later years when Darwin reflected …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … was later expanded into the book, Hereditary Genius (1869), which contained an entry on the …

6248A_20488

Summary

From Fritz Müllerf1   17 June 1868Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil,17. Juni 1868. .... . Sie werden schon aus meinem letzten Briefe ersehen haben, dass es mir sehr schmeichelhaft ist, wenn Sie meine…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f3 The original enclosure …
  • … The figure and page references are to W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f15 Podophthalma: …
  • … F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f3 The original enclosure …
  • … text Möller 1915–21, 2: 141–3; W. S. Dallas trans. 1869, pp. 119–21 n. Physcial description …

6248A_20488A

Summary

From Fritz Müllerf1   17 June 1868Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil,17. Juni 1868. .... . Sie werden schon aus meinem letzten Briefe ersehen haben, dass es mir sehr schmeichelhaft ist, wenn Sie meine…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f3 The original enclosure …
  • … The figure and page references are to W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f15 Podophthalma: …
  • … F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. S. Dallas trans. 1869. f3 The original enclosure …
  • … text Möller 1915–21, 2: 141–3; W. S. Dallas trans. 1869, pp. 119–21 n. Physcial description …

6430_10256

Summary

From Sven Nilsson to J. D. Hookerf1   25 October 1868Lund (Suède)25 Okt. 1868.Monsieur le Professeur! J’ai écrit à deux de mes amis qui ont des connaissances personnelles à la Lapponie, pour avoir les…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and n. 10. f6 See Nilsson 1866–7. In Lubbock 1869, pp. 59–73, John Lubbock disagreed with …
  • … and n. 10. f6 See Nilsson 1866–7. In Lubbock 1869, pp. 59–73, John Lubbock disagreed with …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down …

About the project

Summary

On this site you can read and search the full texts of more than 7,500 of Charles Darwin’s letters, and find information on 7,500 more. Available here are complete transcripts of all known letters Darwin wrote and received up to the year 1869. More are…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … all known letters Darwin wrote and received up to the year 1869. More are being added all the time. …

Family life

Summary

From the long letters exchanged with his sisters during the Beagle voyage, through correspondence about his marriage to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, the births—and deaths—of their children, to the  contributions of his sons and daughters  to his scientific…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … From the long letters exchanged with his sisters during the  Beagle  voyage, through …
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