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To ?   8 December [1861–8]

Summary

Thanks for information on inheritance of mental peculiarities in cats.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  8 Dec [1861-8]
Classmark:  Dr Jeremy J. C. Mallinson (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13770J

To John Crawfurd   25 March [1861]

Summary

Asks for information about JC’s essay, "On the relation of the domesticated animals to civilisation" [read at BAAS meeting 1859].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Crawfurd
Date:  25 Mar [1861]
Classmark:  Sotheby’s (dealers) (8 December 1999)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13786

To Thomas Campbell Eyton   12 [May 1861 – April 1863]

Summary

Thanks TCE for telling him of his crossed pigs. When they are grown, he would like to know whether they resemble each other.

Doubts the half-bred Gallus sonnerati will be productive, though he was assured many years ago that such a fertile half-breed once occurred.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Campbell Eyton
Date:  12 [May 1861 - Apr 1863]
Classmark:  Cadbury Research Library: Special Collections, University of Birmingham (EYT/1/45)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13804

To Charles Lovegrove   9 July [1861?]

Summary

Regrets he does not have pedigree of CL’s "pretty pony", but assures him information was very useful, "more especially as it confirms what I heard from Norway & did not know whether fully to believe".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lovegrove
Date:  9 July [1861?]
Classmark:  Barton L. Smith
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13823

From H. C. Watson   [after 24 July 1861]

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Summary

Gives CD an instance of facts that can be read either way as to whether a plant (Veronica humifusa) is a species or a variety.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 24 July 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 47: 162
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13853

To W. E. Darwin   [1861–82]

Summary

Last page of a letter with a five-line P.S. concerning pen-holders.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [1861–82]
Classmark:  Famous Notables (dealers)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13864F

To ?   20 June [1861–8]

Summary

Sends a copy of the paper [with A. R. Wallace, "On the tendency of species to form varieties" (1858), Collected papers 2: 3–19] about which his correspondent asked; CD’s parts were written years ago and not intended for publication; he gave permission for publication of the extracts. Wallace’s paper seems to him excellent.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  20 June [1861-8]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13879

To ?   24 August [1861–8]

Summary

Thanks correspondent for a remarkable instance of inheritance [not specified].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  24 Aug [1861-8]
Classmark:  Wellcome Library (Wellcome MS.7781/28)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13880

To ?   25 November [1861–8]

Summary

Has read correspondent’s notice on bent cleavage. Refers him to observations on the same fact in South America, p. 160. CD has also suggested a conjectural explanation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  25 Nov [1861-8]
Classmark:  Royal Institution of Great Britain (RI MS F/1/M)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13881

To ?   31 December [1861–8]

Summary

"As I have never especially attended to Conchology I am sorry to say I cannot tell you the name of the enclosed shell which I now return–"

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  31 Dec [1861-8]
Classmark:  J. David Archibald (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13881A

To Hewett Cottrell Watson   [17 July 1861]

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Summary

Difficulty of distinguishing varieties and species. Did HCW suggest a printed list that might help?

Polymorphic genera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Date:  [17 July 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 185: 49
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1616

To William Erasmus Darwin   17 February [1861]

Summary

Sends cheque.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  17 Feb [1861]
Classmark:  Duke University, Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library (Sir Anthony Musgrave Papers (RL.11684): Lady Jeanie Lucinda Musgrave (Field) Scrapbook)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2415

To Frederick Temple   [c. 28 February 1861]

Summary

Regret that the Archbishop of Canterbury and other English Bishops have severely censured Essays and Reviews [1860]. Believe "such enquiries conducted in a spirit so earnest and reverential … must tend to elicit truth, and to foster a spirit of sound religion". [Signed by CD, numerous men of science, and others.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Frederick Temple
Date:  [c. 28 Feb 1861]
Classmark:  H. G. Hutchinson 1914, 1: 57–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2628

To Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire   12 January [1860]

Summary

Very pleased with IGStH’s approval [of Origin]. Will be proud to place IGStH’s Résumé des lecons sur la question de l’espèce (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1851) alongside his other works in his library.

Grateful for his offer to look over the difficult passages in Origin for a translator.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
Date:  12 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  Archives de l’Académie des sciences, Paris (63 J Fonds Gabriel Bertrand)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2649F

To Daniel Oliver   22 January [1861]

Summary

Thanks for mentioning J. G. Kurr on nectaries [Untersuchungen über die Bedeutung der Nektarien in den Blumen (1833)]. Requests observations on flowers with curved pistils. Finds they curve toward nectary, thus lying in path of insect.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  22 Jan [1861]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 5 (EH 88205989)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2661

To Oswald Heer?   20 April [1861?]

Summary

Thanks for correspondent’s Untersuchungen [? Über das Klima und die Vegetationsverhältnisse des Tertiärlandes (1860)]. CD has always considered subject interesting and important.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Oswald Heer
Date:  20 Apr [1861?]
Classmark:  Catherine Barnes (dealer) (2002)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2765

From Henry Fawcett   16 July [1861]

Summary

Elaborates on his article ["A popular exposition of Mr Darwin on the origin of species", Macmillan’s Mag. 3 (1860): 81–92]. Was anxious to point out that CD’s method of investigation is philosophically correct. Asks permission to call.

Author:  Henry Fawcett
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 July [1861]
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 29–30
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2868

To John Lubbock   [before 5 February 1861]

Summary

Comments on JL’s paper ["Notes on the generative organs, and on the formation of the egg in the Annulosa", Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 11 (1860–2): 117–24].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  [before 5 Feb 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 40c (EH 88206451)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3038

From Daniel Oliver   [before 8 November 1861]

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Summary

List of references on orchid structure and fertilisation.

Author:  Daniel Oliver
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 8 Nov 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 225–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3039

To Williams and Norgate   [1861]

Summary

Requests Natural History Review for 1861 until further notice.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Williams & Norgate
Date:  [1861]
Classmark:  Uppsala University Library: Manuscripts and Music (Waller Ms alb-67:134)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3040F
Document type
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Date
1861
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Darwin in letters, 1861: Gaining allies

Summary

The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. He had weathered the storm that followed the publication of Origin, and felt cautiously optimistic about the ultimate acceptance of his ideas. The letters from this year provide an…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. By then, …
  • … , developed into an intensive study of the phenomenon in 1861. Orchids, in particular the …
  • … good service’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 26–7 Februrary [1861] ). Darwin drew up a carefully thought …
  • … Charles Lyell ( see letter to Charles Lyell, 20 July [1861] ). One reason for Darwin’s interest in …
  • … proved’ ( see second letter to J. D. Hooker, 23 [April 1861] ). Darwin continued to stress to his …
  • … followed in  Origin  was singled out for praise in 1861. He had been disappointed to learn of John …
  • … a committed crusader, Darwin wrote to Herschel, on 23 May [1861]: 'You will think me very …
  • … to such a subject’ ( letter from Henry Fawcett, 16 July [1861] ). Mill in fact included a brief …
  • … of any service!’ ( letter to Henry Fawcett, 18 September [1861] ). Darwin added some new …
  • … the geological record ( see letter to George Maw, 19 July [1861] ). The American palaeontologist …
  • … opportunity’ ( letter from Joseph Leidy, 4 March [1861] ). However, the publication of Leidy’s …
  • … her new species’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 28 March [1861] ). Mimicry Bates' …
  • … was evident. He told Darwin in his letter of [1 December] 1861: I think the whole tenour …
  • … set is free’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 30 September 1861 ). As Peter Bowler has commented, …
  • … to Nat. History.—’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 4 April [1861] ). He also advised that the public …
  • … poor cousins.—’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 3 December [1861] ). Darwin volunteered to read some of …
  • … for the work ( letter to H. W. Bates, 25 September [1861] ). Nevertheless, many naturalists were …
  • … and awful smasher’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 January [1861] ). Ever since Owen’s highly critical …
  • … be friends again’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 January [1861] ). Friends and family …
  • … formed a lasting bond between the two women. In May 1861 Darwin offered consolation to his …
  • … walked this earth’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 [May 1861] ). Henslow had been a uniquely …
  • … a major preoccupation of Darwin’s during the course of 1861. Projects begun the previous summer as …
  • … on Hybridisation’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 16 September [1861] ). But it was his study of …
  • … the contrivances.–-’ ( letter of [28 July–10 August 1861] ). Later in the year, he went even …
  • … Darwin pursued this study doggedly throughout the summer of 1861, writing to anyone he thought might …
  • … of species’ ( letter to Henry Fawcett, 18 September [1861] ), Darwin conceived of the orchid work, …
  • … in publishing’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 17 November [1861] ). Nevertheless, Darwin immediately …
  • … to Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefage de Bréau, 25 April [1861] ). By the end of May, however, he had …
  • … geology features prominently in the correspondence of 1861. Here, it was Charles Lyell who continued …

Darwin & Glen Roy

Summary

Although Darwin was best known for his geological work in South America and other remote Beagle destinations, he made one noteworthy attempt to explain a puzzling feature of British geology.  In 1838, two years after returning from the voyage, he travelled…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … filled by a glacier.’  Yet in letters written as late as 1861, Darwin continued to defend, albeit …
  • … 1 July [1859] From Thomas Jamieson, 3 September 1861 To Thomas Jamieson, 6 …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 3054: Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 2 Feb [1861] If the descent of languages was …

Essay: Natural selection & natural theology

Summary

—by Asa Gray NATURAL SELECTION NOT INCONSISTENT WITH NATURAL THEOLOGY. Atlantic Monthly for July, August, and October, 1860, reprinted in 1861. I Novelties are enticing to most people; to us they are simply annoying. We cling to a long-accepted…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … July ,  August , and  October , 1860, reprinted in 1861. I Novelties are …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 8 hits

  • … hopelessly in the mud. BEGINNING OF WAR IN AMERICA: 1861-1862 In which the start of …
  • … fire. Military drums. GRAY:   113   April 1861. We are now opening a war, upon the …
  • … 1856 29  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 11 APRIL 1861 30  A GRAY TO C DARWIN, EARLY …
  • … 16 FEB 1863 99  C DARWIN TO LYELL, 21 AUGUST 1861 100 A GRAY, ATLANTIC …
  • … 3 JULY 1860 109  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 21 JULY 1861 110 QUOTED IN  C …
  • … 1862 131  A GRAY TO C DARWIN, 31 DECEMBER 1861 132  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, …
  • … FEBRUARY 1862 134 JD HOOKER TO A GRAY, 5 JULY 1861 135  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, …
  • … 1864 162  A GRAY TO C DARWIN, 31 DECEMBER 1861 163  C Darwin TO A Gray, …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his ill health (e.g., Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  14 May [1861] ) and family duties (Darwin to W. B. …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … miserably uncomfortable. Emma to Charles Darwin, 1861. I am …

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Julia Wedgwood

Summary

Charles Darwin’s readership largely consisted of other well-educated Victorian men, nonetheless, some women did read, review, and respond to Darwin’s work. One of these women was Darwin’s own niece, Julia Wedgwood, known in the family as “Snow”. In July…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin over a review she wrote of Origin   in July of 1861 for Macmillan’s Magazine . Deeply …
  • … a very rare event with my critics. [Letter  July 11, [1861] from Darwin, C.D. to Wedgwood, F.J.] …
  • … a dialogue. Macmillan’s Magazine 2 (1860): 134–8; 4 (1861): 237-47. Wedgwood Barbara and …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and kidney beans To J. D. Hooker,  28 September [1861] : on Verbascum ‘I do not think any …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … evidence to establish the age of the human race.  In 1861, Lubbock joined Thomas Henry Huxley …
  • … geologico-arch{aeological researches in Denmark’ (Lubbock 1861) for the October 1861 issue. The …
  • … source of many of the ‘details’ for his article (Lubbock 1861, p. 494). Meanwhile, Lubbock continued …
  • … type for Elements of geology in 1860 and then re-set in 1861 for Antiquity of man (see below …
  • … in the October Number of the Natural History Review , 1861, p. 489, in which he has described the …
  • … note on p. 11 of C. Lyell 1863c, which implied that Lubbock 1861 had been written after the chapter …
  • … similarity of certain passages in C. Lyell 1863c and Lubbock 1861 (and consequently in Lubbock 1865) …
  • … explaining his position and citing passages in Lubbock 1861 and C. Lyell 1863c that were almost …
  • … was not original work (Lubbock had based much of his 1861 article on earlier Danish studies) it …
  • … which were published in the interval between the autumn of 1861 and February 1863. In this long …
  • … a translation for the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 1861. 35 The distinguished …
  • … the October number of the ‘Natural History Review’ for 1861, to improve the wording, and …
  • … in the October Number of the Natural History Review, 1861, p. 489, in which he has described the …
  • … in the October Number of the Natural History Review, 1861, p. 489, an able paper on the Danish …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 17 Sept [1861] Darwin writes to Gray about botany …
  • … Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 11 Dec [1861] Darwin writes to Gray about politics …

Descent

Summary

‘Our ancestor was an animal which breathed water, had a swim-bladder, a great swimming tail, an imperfect skull & undoubtedly was an hermaphrodite! Here is a pleasant genealogy for mankind.’ There are more than five hundred letters associated with…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of the courtship of fowls sent by Bernard Peirce Brent in 1861 , described by Darwin as ‘almost …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November 1861] Darwin asks actress and …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … moved away from Down (letter to J. B. Innes, 15 December [1861] ). Darwin and Innes continued to …

Orchids

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment A project to follow On the Origin of Species Darwin began to observe English orchids and collect specimens from abroad in the years immediately following the publication of On the Origin of Species. Examining…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 3286 - Charles Darwin to Joseph Dalton Hooker 15 October 1861 Darwin writes to JD Hooker, …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … vol. 9, letter to J. D. Hooker, 28 September [1861] ). Scott had evidently started his …
  • … Darwin wrote poignantly to his son William on 30 November [1861]: ‘Mamma is in bed with bad Headach. …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … on botanical dimorphism and trimorphism, published between 1861 and 1864, which raised questions …
  • … Darwin had become interested in  Rhamnus  (buckthorn) in 1861, when Asa Gray informed him that a …
  • … (Correspondence vol. 9, letter from Asa Gray, 11 October 1861 ). Darwin wished to establish …

Instinct and the Evolution of Mind

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Slave-making ants For Darwin, slave-making ants were a powerful example of the force of instinct. He used the case of the ant Formica sanguinea in the On the Origin of Species to show how instinct operates—how…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 3266 —Charles Darwin to H. W. Bates, 25 September [1861] In a letter full of advice …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Towards the end of 1862, Darwin resolved to build a small hothouse at Down House, for ‘experimental purposes’ (see Correspondence vol. 10, letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1862], and volume 10, letter to Thomas Rivers, 15 January 1863). The decision…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … meaning a construction suitable for tropical plants. In 1861 and 1862, while preparing  Orchids , …
  • … again on Turnbull’s hothouses in his experiments, begun in 1861, on the Melastomataceae, a family of …
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