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Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 7 hits

  • … as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified …
  • … being a part of [an unpublished] manuscript. Darwin settles down to write. His tone is …
  • … THE CONCURRENCE OF BOTANISTS: 1855 In which Darwin initiates a long-running correspondence …
  • … gossip about difficult colleagues (Agassiz). Gray realizes Darwin is not revealing all of his …
  • … paragraph, in which I quote and differ from you[r]  178   doctrine that each variation has been …
  • … ARTS AND SCIENCES, PROCEEDINGS XVII, 1882 4  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 10 MAY 1848 …
  • … A WALLACE, 13 NOVEMBER 1859 66  C DARWIN TO R OWEN, 11 NOVEMBER 1859 67  …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a …
  • … community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women …
  • … Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin …
  • … garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwin’s …
  • … Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin …
  • … Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris …
  • … Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • … Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • … lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin …
  • … Letter 9606 - Harrison, L. C. to Darwin, [22 August 1874] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, …
  • … Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris …
  • … garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • … the future. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] Darwin …
  • … Letter 7858 - Darwin to Wa llace, A. R., [12 July 1871] Darwin tells Wallace that …
  • … process. Letter 9156  - Wallace, A. R . to Darwin, [19 November 1873] …
  • … Letter 4373  - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S, M. S. & L. C., [4 August 1862] Darwin …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the …
  • … he first began to reflect on the transmutation of species. Darwin’s correspondence reveals the scope …
  • … he exchanged information and ideas. Letter 346: Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., 27 Feb 1837 …
  • … one stock.” Letter 2070: Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [before 29 Sept 1857] …
  • … down of former continents.” Letter 3054: Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 2 Feb [1861] …
  • … that languages, like species, were separately created. Darwin writes to the geologist Charles Lyell …
  • … I tell him is perfectly logical.” Letter 5605: Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 15 Aug …
  • … Letter 7040: Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [1868-70?] As Darwin began to work on …
  • … growing to such a stage” Letter 8367: Darwin, C. R. to Wright, Chauncey, 3 June [1872] …
  • … altering the breed. Letter 8962: Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 July 1873 …
  • … Letter 10194: Max Müller, Friedrich to Darwin, C. R., 13 Oct [1875] For Müller, human and …
  • … […]” Letter 9887: Dawkins, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 14 Mar 1875 The relationship …
  • … […]” Letter 11074: Sayce, A. H. to Darwin, C. R., 27 July 1877 Darwin’s study of …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] …
  • … of Variation . Letter 6237 - Bullar, R. to Darwin, [9 June 1868] …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his …
  • … when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific …
  • … section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • … about Hooker’s thoughts. Letter 729 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • … is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844 …
  • Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 25 Apr [1855] Darwin …
  • … species. Letter 1685 — Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray recalled …
  • … flora in the USA. Letter 2125 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin …
  • … information exchange. Letter 1202 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • … name. Letter 1220 — Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 3 Feb 1849 In this gossipy …
  • … species descriptions. Letter 1260 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 12 Oct 1849 …
  • … Letter 1319 — Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 6 & 7 Apr 1850 Hooker apologises for the …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1876 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the …
  • … games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wife … poor creature, has won …
  • … regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to …
  • … a serious concussion from a riding accident, and George Darwin’s ill-health grew worse, echoing …
  • … once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his …
  • … and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and …
  • … had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his …
  • … of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February 1876 ). When …
  • … single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at …
  • … meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the …
  • … to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) Darwin focused instead on the second …
  • … concentrated on the ‘means of crossing’, was seen by Darwin as the companion to Cross and self …
  • … return to old work than part of the future work outlined by Darwin in his ‘little Autobiography’ ( …
  • … holiday after finishing Cross and self fertilisation , Darwin took up the suggestion made by a …
  • … for his family only. Writing for an hour every afternoon, Darwin finished his account on 3 August …
  • … dimittis.”’ (‘Recollections’, pp. 418–19). Darwin remained firm in his resolution to …
  • … ever return to the consideration of man.’ In particular, Darwin seemed eager to avoid issues that …
  • … wrote with the good news that he could restore Darwin to a religious life. This transformation would …
  • … and who had succeeded in giving him pain ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 June 1876 ). Although …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … Origin . The second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and …
  • … of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 July [1860] Darwin …
  • … on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 17 Sept [1861] Darwin …
  • … about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 11 Dec [1861] Darwin …
  • … questions about design. Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 May [1868] …
  • Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 — Wallace, A. R. to Darwin, C. R., 2 July 1866 …
  • Darwin and Graham Letter 13230 — Darwin, C. R. to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 …
  • … Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov 1838] In this letter, his soon-to-be …
  • … Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious …

Controversy

Summary

The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely variable. Many of …
  • … was itself an important arena of debate, one that Darwin greatly preferred to the public sphere. …
  • … and support sustained in spite of enduring differences. Darwin's correspondence can thus help …
  • … Disagreement and Respect Darwin rarely engaged with critics publically. Letters exchanged …
  • … Richard Owen, the eminent comparative anatomist, show how Darwin tried to manage strong disagreement …
  • … were less severe, the relationship quickly deteriorated and Darwin came to regard him as a bitter …
  • … Letter 2548 — Sedgwick, Adam to Darwin, C. R., 24 Nov 1859 Adam Sedgwick thanks Darwin for …
  • … true-hearted friend. Letter 2555 — Darwin, C. R. to Sedgwick, Adam, 26 Nov [1859] …
  • … Owen Letter 2526 — Owen, Richard to Darwin, C. R., 12 Nov 1859 Owen says to Darwin …
  • … as “heterodox”. Letter 2575 — Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, [10 Dec 1859] …
  • … higgledy-piggledy”. Letter 2580 — Darwin, C. R. to Owen, Richard, 13 Dec [1859] …
  • … men eminent in science. Letter 2767 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 25 Apr [1860] …
  • … aggressive tactics. Letter 5500 — Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 12 Apr [1867] …
  • … Letter 5533 — Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, C. R., 12 May 1867 Haeckel thanks Darwin for the …
  • … attack is essential. Letter 5544 — Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 21 May [1867] …
  • … religious differences. Letter 2285 — Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 18 [June 1858] …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1878 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the …
  • … moisture, and various chemical and nutritive substances, Darwin next considered sound. He explained …
  • … instrument to various plants. To confirm the results, Darwin borrowed a siren from Tyndall, who had …
  • … ill-luck to them, are not sensitive to aerial vibrations’, Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my …
  • … 8 August. ‘Alas Frank is off tomorrow to Wurzburg,’ Darwin wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 2 June , ‘ …
  • … Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June [1878] ). While Francis was away, Darwin sent regular reports about their …
  • … Record”’ ( letter from Edmund Mojsisovics von Mojsvár, 28 April 1878 ). ‘What a wonderful change …
  • … secretary, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil ( letter to R. A. T. Gascoyne-Cecil, 18 May 1878 ). …
  • … to natural science & aids me in my work; a 4th son is in the R. Engineers & is getting on …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1877 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The …
  • … of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwin’s botany was increasingly a …
  • … assisted his father’s research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his son’s own …
  • … The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums …
  • … from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of …
  • … sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • … no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of …
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of …
  • … and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term …
  • … as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton …
  • … measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual …
  • … primrose and purple loosestrife. In the course of his work, Darwin found a number of other …
  • … dreadful work making out anything about dried flowers’, Darwin complained to Asa Gray on 8 March …
  • … which include heterstyled species. This pleases me.’. Darwin dedicated the book to Gray, ‘as a small …
  • … separate publications together into a larger whole enabled Darwin to advance more speculative views …
  • … both pollen and seeds’ ( Forms of flowers , p. 344). Darwin was typically pessimistic about the …
  • … be sold’. His publisher knew from previous experience that Darwin was a poor judge of sales, and …
  • … after completing his manuscript of Forms of flowers , Darwin took up the problem of ‘bloom’ in …
  • … characteristic whose purpose was little understood. Darwin had begun studying bloom in August 1873, …
  • … exchanged between Down and Kew over the next six months. Darwin corresponded most often with the …
  • … one of the young leaves with a delicate twig’ ( letter to R. I. Lynch, 14 September 1877 ). …
  • … but I think the great honour of its being printed in the R. Soc. Transactions, (sh d . the …
  • … larger aim was announced in the subtitle: Zeitschrift für einheitliche Weltanschauung auf Grund …
  • … any recognition by any public bodies of England & that y r . own University w d . like to be …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwin’s son George dominated the second …
  • … and traveller Alexander von Humboldt’s 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt …
  • … from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one …
  • … I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a week’s visit to …
  • … Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that …
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in …
  • … 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of …
  • … by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too …
  • … the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwin’s cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those …
  • … imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it was ‘all imposture’ …
  • … stop word getting to America of the ‘strange news’ that Darwin had allowed ‘a spirit séance’ at his …
  • … the first three months of the year and, like many of Darwin’s enterprises in the 1870s, were family …
  • … 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble in …
  • … and letter to Charles Lyell, [13 January 1874] ). Darwin blamed his illness for the …
  • … . In his preface ( Coral reefs  2d ed., pp. v–vii), Darwin reasserted the priority of his work. …
  • … Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though …
  • … on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • … Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He …
  • … replied, ‘I have so poor a metaphysical head that M r  Spencer’s terms of equilibration &c …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwin’s neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In …
  • … all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • … hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwin’s theory of transmutation …
  • … alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwin’s American publisher for a …
  • … for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwin’s work was given by Hooker in an …
  • … frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwin’s sisters died, Emily Catherine …
  • … from painful illness. Diet and exercise Among Darwin’s first letters in the new year …
  • … every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). Darwin had first consulted Jones in July …
  • … ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). Darwin began riding the cob, Tommy, on 4 …
  • … day which I enjoy much.’ The new exercise regime led to Darwin’s being teased by his neighbour, John …
  • … general theories: ‘I will maintain to the death that y r  case of Fernando Po & Abyssinia is …
  • … you go on, after the startling apparition of your face at R.S. Soirèe—which I dreamed of 2 nights …
  • … and June on the subject of  Rhamnus catharticus  (now  R. cathartica ). Darwin had become …
  • … of separate sexes. William gathered numerous specimens of  R. catharticus , the only species of  …
  • … replied with a modified list, adding Fritz Müller’s  Für Darwin , and a recent fossil discovery in …
  • … selection, and with special creation ( letter from W. R. Grove, 31 August 1866 ). Hooker later …
  • … instalment of  Principles of biology . ( Letter from A. R. Wallace, 2 July 1866. ) Darwin agreed …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 12 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • … set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication …
  • … throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • … anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November …
  • … Nevill is referenced by name for her “kindness” in Darwin’s Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • … as “friends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] …
  • … in the final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - …
  • … in Expression . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868 …
  • … at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwin’s …
  • … near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • … of North Wales. Letter 8193 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [1 February 1872] …
  • … . Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin asks …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwin’s time for the rest of the year was devoted …
  • … way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from …
  • … offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be …
  • … a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwin’s evolutionary account of the …
  • … taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases …
  • … year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the …
  • … also brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwin’s eldest daughter Henrietta was …
  • … during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working fairly continuously …
  • … work on species theory in the late 1830s. In recent years, Darwin had collected a wealth of material …
  • … to human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwin’s aim of  showing kinship with animals …
  • … he is “torn to pieces” by people wanting copies’, Darwin wrote to his son Francis on 28 February …
  • … letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ). The profits for Darwin were considerable. After …
  • … man.’ Promoting the book As usual, Darwin did his best to obtain a wide and favourable …
  • … (see Correspondence vol. 19, Appendix IV). Four of Darwin’s five sons received a copy, and his …
  • … received a special acknowledgment in the form of a gift. Darwin credited her for whatever he had …
  • … 1871). The geologist William Boyd Dawkins remarked on Darwin’s books’ reception amongst ‘artisans …
  • … 23 February 1871 ). Thomas Henry Huxley marvelled that Darwin had been able to link the periodicity …
  • … Variation ,  Descent  inspired many to write to Darwin with small corrections or contributions. …
  • … so giddy I can hardly sit up, so no more’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 4 August [1871] ). On 23 …
  • … ( letter to Asa Gray, 16 July [1871] , letter to S. R. S. Norton, 23 November [1871] ). …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … Maurice (3) Albrecht, R. F. (3) …
  • … Alice (2) Alison, R. E. (2) Allen, …
  • … Athenæum (11) Atkin, J. R. (1) …
  • … Baker, A. F. (1) Bakewell, R. H. (1) …
  • … K. S. (1) Barr, J. G. R. (1) …
  • … Edward (6) Bartlett, R. S. (1) …
  • … (1) Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte …
  • … Blackwell, T. E. (1) Blair, R. A. (7) …
  • … Browne, Hugh (4) Browne, W. R. (1) …
  • … W. B. (19) Carrington, A. R. (1) …
  • … Chapman, John (4) Charles, R. F. (2) …
  • … Clarke, Hyde (3) Clarke, R. T. (7) …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwin’s mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and …
  • … letters on climbing plants to make another paper. Darwin also submitted a manuscript of his …
  • … protégé, John Scott, who was now working in India. Darwin’s transmutation theory continued to …
  • … Argyll, appeared in the religious weekly,  Good Words . Darwin received news of an exchange of …
  • … Butler, and, according to Butler, the bishop of Wellington. Darwin’s theory was discussed at an …
  • … in the  Gardeners’ Chronicle . At the end of the year, Darwin was elected an honorary member of …
  • … in August. There was also a serious dispute between two of Darwin’s friends, John Lubbock and …
  • … jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin was ready to submit his paper on …
  • … a sudden illness. Falconer was 56, almost the same age as Darwin himself. Falconer had seconded …
  • … supported his candidacy, and had tried hard to persuade Darwin to accept the award in person (see  …
  • … Sic transit gloria mundi, with a vengeance Darwin’s response to the news of Falconer’s …
  • Darwin had received a copy of Müller’s book,  Für Darwin , a study of the Crustacea with reference …
  • … Hooker’s behalf, ‘He asks if you saw the article of M r . Croll in the last Reader on the …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the …
  • … in relation to Sex’. Always precise in his accounting, Darwin reckoned that he had started writing …
  • … gathered on each of these topics was far more extensive than Darwin had anticipated. As a result,  …
  • … and St George Jackson Mivart, and heated debates sparked by Darwin’s proposed election to the French …
  • … Finishing Descent; postponing Expression Darwin began receiving proofs of some of the …
  • … ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on parts of the …
  • … , the latter when she was just eighteen years of age. Darwin clearly expected her to make a …
  • … philanthropist Frances Power Cobbe. At Cobbe’s suggestion, Darwin read some of Immanuel Kant’s  …
  • … ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in his beard with …
  • … as animals: ears Despite Cobbe’s plea, most of Darwin’s scientific attention in 1870 was …
  • … fairy in Shakespeare’s  A midsummer night’s dream.  Darwin obtained a sketch of a human ear from …
  • … this volume, letter to Thomas Woolner, 10 March [1870] ). Darwin included Woolner’s sketch in  …
  • … muscles A more troubling anatomical feature for Darwin was the platysma myoides, a band of …
  • … of fright’, and one of his photographs, later used by Darwin in  Expression , showed a man whose …
  • … letter from James Crichton-Browne, 15 March 1870 ). Indeed, Darwin noted the same longitudinal …
  • … Researching expression: questions and questionnaires Darwin’s research on emotions continued …
  • … year (see  Correspondence  vol. 17, letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). His views were …
  • … (in retrograde direction) naturalist’ (letter to A. R.Wallace, 26 January [1870]). …
  • … each other, though in one sense rivals’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 20 April [1870] ). Darwin …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … … of having grown older’. This portrait, the first of Darwin with his now famous beard, had been …
  • … 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • … prescribed a variety of antacids and purgatives, and limited Darwin’s fluid intake; this treatment …
  • … the dimorphic aquatic cut-grass  Leersia . In May, Darwin finished his paper on  Lythrum …
  • … he had set aside the previous summer. In October, Darwin let his friends know that on his …
  • … to the surgeon and naturalist Francis Trevelyan Buckland, Darwin described his symptoms in some …
  • … November and December were also marked by the award to Darwin of the Royal Society’s Copley Medal; …
  • … been unsuccessfully nominated the two previous years. As Darwin explained to his cousin William …
  • … it was conferred, brought a dramatic conclusion to the year. Darwin also wrote to Fox that he was …
  • … progress’ in Britain. Challenging convention Darwin’s concern about the acceptance of …
  • …  vol. 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin wrote to Hooker: ‘The only approach to work …
  • … tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwin’s excitement about his …
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 June [1864] ). When Darwin asked Oliver whether the tendrils of …
  • … for his teacherly tone, explaining that he had felt that Darwin had misunderstood some accepted …
  • … ( letter from Daniel Oliver, [17 March 1864] ). Though Darwin replied with his typical humility …
  • … habits of climbing plants’ (‘Climbing plants’), which Darwin submitted to the Linnean Society in …
  • … was often the case, he was interested in transitional forms. Darwin came to think, for example, that …
  • … and tendril-bearers. At the end of his paper, Darwin used species from the genus  Lathyrus …
  • … the tendrils then revert to leaves, as in  L. nissolia . Darwin wrote (‘Climbing plants’, p. 115): …
  • … In addition to his work on climbing plants, Darwin engaged in 1864 in botanical observations and …
  • … 5 September 1864 ). Fritz Müeller sent his book,  Für Darwin , and Darwin had it translated by a …
  • … on intellectual &  moral  qualities’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate…

Matches: 23 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any …
  • … he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The …
  • … and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 87–90, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of …
  • … process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, Darwin claimed that sexual selection was ‘the …
  • … to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on …
  • … his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that his …
  • … which was devoted to sexual selection in the animal kingdom. Darwin described his thirst for …
  • … in January 1868. A final delay caused by the indexing gave Darwin much vexation. ‘My book is …
  • … 1867 and had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwin’s request, he modified his …
  • … the text. This increased the amount of work substantially. Darwin asked Murray to intervene, …
  • … … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwin’s angry letter to Murray crossed one from …
  • … blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin sympathised, replying on 14 January …
  • … as stone, if it were not quite mollified by your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  …
  • … it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, but not …
  • … . It is a disgrace to the paper’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 24 February [1868] ). The review was …
  • … April 1868 . The letter was addressed to ‘the Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed …
  • … as life he wd find the odour sexual!’ ( letter to A . R. Wallace, 16 September [1868] ). Francis …
  • … south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing sphinx moths that were …
  • … question of the “Origin of Species”’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 4 October 1868 ). …
  • … hands of the enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). …
  • … mission stations in Victoria, Australia ( letter from R. B. Smyth, 13 August 1868 ); lengthy …
  • … lepidopterist Adolf Speyer and the plant geographer August Röse were ‘ardent followers of [Darwin& …
  • … who wished to pay ‘his devotions at the shrine of D r . Darwin’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 …
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