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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October 1862] …
  • … behaviour. Letter 4258 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [31 July 1863] Lydia …
  • … officinalis . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] …
  • … 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwin’s …
  • … Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] Anne Jane Cupples, …
  • … her niece’s ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen …
  • … insects. Men: Letter 2221 - Blyth, E. to Darwin, [22 February 1858] …
  • … New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • … Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin …
  • … on holiday in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • … Letter 2055  - Langton, E. to Darwin,  F., [21 February 1857] Darwin’s nephew, …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Abberley, John (1) Abbot, F. E. (17) …
  • … Alice (2) Alison, R. E. (2) Allen, …
  • … Vienna (1) Appleton, C. E. C. B. (2) …
  • … Bacon, Booth (1) Badger, E. W. (3) …
  • … Baranoff, W. (2) Barber, M. E. (1) …
  • … Frédéric (1) Baumhauer, E. H. von (2) …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E., [13 May 1872] Darwin consults his …
  • … Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 July 1872] Darwin thanks Henrietta for …
  • … . Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin …
  • … Mould . Letter 12760 - Wedgwood, K. E. S. to Darwin, [15 October 1880] …
  • … Letter 13037 - Darwin to Darwin, W. E., [5 February 1881] Darwin discusses …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … liking, ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). Reaction …
  • … a high aesthetic appreciation of beauty ( letter from E. J. Pfeiffer, [before 26 April 1871] ). …
  • … the most deep and tender religious feeling’ ( letter from F. E. Abbot, 20 August 1871 ). The …
  • … home, Leith Hill Place in Surrey, and CD’s niece Lucy Wedgwood collected and weighed the dried …
  • … who was ‘as good as twice refined gold’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 September [1871] ). …
  • … up to the last with quinine & sherry’ ( letter from H. E. Litchfield to Charles and Emma Darwin …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of style, the more grateful I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had …
  • … have thought that I shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta …
  • … so unimportant as the mind of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). …
  • … attending college lectures for the time being ( letter to [E.W. Blore], [October 1870 or later] ). …
  • … horse that had thrown him (letter from G. H. Darwin to H. E. Darwin, [21 – 2 February 1870] (DAR 251 …

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Charles Darwin’s daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and July 1871 in a small lockable, leather-bound notebook now in the Darwin Archive of Cambridge University Library (DAR 247). They are published in volume 19 of The…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … on the expression of emotion (see letters from F. J. Wedgwood to H. E. and C. R. Darwin, [1867–72], …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … proofread and edited by “a lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 - DAR 219.1 …
  • … readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin …
  • … Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] Ann Cupples asks …
  • … readership Letter 5391 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [6 February 1867] …
  • … Society . Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] …
  • … to an asylum with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., …
  • … might be suitable. Letter 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] …
  • … Letter 8778 - Forster, L. M . to Darwin, H. E., [20 February 1873] Henrietta’s …
  • … contained in the work. Letter 5861 - Blyth, E. to Darwin, [11 February 1868] …
  • … the second edition. Letter 6040 - Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, [23 March 1868] …
  • … of variation”. Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … He can give me.” Letter 5303 — Boole, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., 13 Dec 1866 In this …
  • … Letter 5307 — Darwin, C. R. to Boole, M. E., 14 Dec 1866 Darwin believes he is unable to …
  • … course. Letter 8070 — Darwin, C. R. to Abbot, F. E., 16 Nov [1871] Darwin explains …
  • … Letter 12757 — Darwin, C. R. to Aveling, E. B., 13 Oct 1880 In this letter marked “private”, …
  • … Future Plans Letter 182 — Darwin, E. A. to Darwin, C. R., 18 Aug [1832] Darwin’s …
  • … regarding the Church. Letter 297 — Darwin, S. E. to Darwin, C. R., 12 Feb 1836 …
  • … Darwin, Sir John Lubbock, Ellen Frances Lubbock, and S. E. Wedgwood, petition the Board to grant …

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Letters Letter 7048 : Darwin, W. E., to Darwin, C. R., [April? 1871] In …
  • … wh. belong of right to what I should call Social Selection--i.e., the selection by a community, …
  • … conduct." Letter 9377 : Darwin, C. R. to Abbott, F. E. A., 30 March 1874 …
  • … H. 1974. 'Early writings of Charles Darwin', in Gruber, H. E., Darwin on man. A …
  • … ] Moore, G. E. Principia Ethica (1903), ch. 2. [ …
  • … Kitcher, P. 1994. 'Four ways of "biologizing ethics", in E. Sober ed., Conceptual …
  • … Richards, R. J. 1987. Appendix 2. Sober, E. 1994. 'Did evolution make us psychological …
  • … . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wilson, E. O. 1978. On Human Nature , pp. 149 …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … selection is somewhat under a cloud’, he wrote to J. E. Taylor on 13 January , and he complained …
  • … by her husband, Richard Buckley Litchfield ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 13 May 1872 ). Delivery …
  • … 'I know that I am half-killed myself’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 25 July 1872 ). A …
  • … a week later ( enclosure to letter from John Lubbock to W. E. Gladstone, 20 June 1872 ).  Darwin …
  • … than usual. One such old friend was Sarah Haliburton, née Owen, to whose sister, Fanny, Darwin had …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … we have & you are one of the best of all’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 11 September [1876] ). …
  • … she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August 1876] (DAR 219.9: …
  • … herself & is so tender’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6 …
  • … completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6: …
  • … horticulturists and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … books that she could recall encountering as a child (H. E. Litchfield papers, CUL). [60] …
  • … family archives, but who possesses it, I do not know.’ (H. E. Litchfield papers, CUL). [71] …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … by Darwin from a suggestion made by his uncle, Josiah Wedgwood II, during one of Darwin’s visits to …
  • … 1961, p. 53). Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His hopes and …
  • … to Caroline Darwin, 13 October 1834 , and letter from R. E. Alison, 25 June 1835 ). Henry …

Discussion Questions and Essay Questions

Summary

There are a wide range of possibilities for opening discussion and essay writing on Darwin’s correspondence.  We have provided a set of sample discussion questions and essay questions, each of which focuses on a particular topic or correspondent in depth.…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … readers draw from Darwin’s theories?[Mary Boole (1864), F. E. Abbot (1871-4), John Fordyce (1879), …
  • … [Treat, Becker, or William Tegetmeier, as compared with, e.g., Asa Gray] Did sex matter in …
  • … 1868, W. Reade, 1870-1) As a product of natural selection, e.g. coloured seeds and fruit (Fritz …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Erasmus’s house. The event was led by the medium Charles E. Williams, and was attended by George …
  • … all the horrid bother of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The book …
  • … artificial gastric juice  for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon …
  • … try to get it exhibited at a Royal Society of London soirée  (see letter from Anton Dohrn, 6 April …
  • … nephew, the fine-art specialist Henry Parker ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 17 [March 1874] ). He …
  • … Julius Victor Carus, and his publisher, Eduard Koch of E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, …
  • … could not weary the German public ( letter to H. E. Litchfield,  21 [March 1874] ). …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Virchow for experimenting on the Trichinae’ (letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ). …
  • … prospect of animals suffering for science. In a letter to E. Ray Lankester, he wrote: ‘You ask about …
  • … not sleep to-night’ ( Correspondence vol. 19, letter to E. R. Lankester, 22 March [1871] ). In …
  • … ‘we wd do whatever else you think best’ (letter to E. H. Stanley, 15 April 1875 ). After further …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … in April 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, letters from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 and 10 …
  • … day That ever you were born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   …
  • … plants (Carus trans. 1876a). The German publisher E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagshandlung began to …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian Islands 8 consult D r …
  • … of variation in animals in the different isl ds  of E Indian Archipelago— [DAR *119: 6v.] …
  • … & Rev. W. Herbert.— notes to White Nat. Hist of Selbourne [E. T. Bennett ed. 1837 and [J. Rennie …
  • … 2 vols. 8vo. avec 2 atlas 4to. ibid, 1818–23. £1 2 s  [E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1818–23] …
  • … said to be Poor Sir. J. Edwards Botanical Tour [?J. E. Smith 1793] Fabricius (very old …
  • … at Maer.— Lives of Kepler & Galileo. Drinkwater [J. E. Drinkwater] 1833]— Prof. …
  • … on Aurochs [Weissenborn 1838] Smiths grammar [J. E. Smith 1821] & introduct of Botany [J. …
  • … (read) G. St. Hilaire Progress de un Naturalist [E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1835] (Gerard …
  • … Gleanings in Nat. Hist in Knowsly. L d . Derby [J. E. Gray 1846–50] ( Royal. Soc ) many facts on …
  • … consult. [DAR *119: 22] Eyeres Travels [E. J. Eyre 1845] very amusing …
  • … 1698–9] Memoirs of Plumer Ward by Hon Phipps [E. Phipps 1850] L d . Harveys Memoirs …
  • … Knox. Ornithological Ramble in Sussex. 7. 6. [A. E. Knox 1849] J. Lubbock has & will lend me— …
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