Italian zoologist. Studied philosophy and natural sciences at Vienna, receiving his degree in 1861. Professor of natural history, Modena, 1862–9. Professor of zoology and comparative anatomy and physiology, Padua, 1869–1900. Translated the first Italian edition of Origin (1864) in association with Leonardo Salimbeni, and of Variation (second edition, 1875). Worked mainly in ichthyology and later on human origins.