Author and artist. Grandson of Samuel Butler (1774–1839). Emigrated to New Zealand in 1859; returned to Britain after publishing an account of his time farming in the colony, A first year in Canterbury settlement (1863). Published books on art, music, literature, and philosophy, including the novels Erewhon (1872) and The way of all flesh (1903); published a two-volume life of his grandfather, Life of Samuel Butler, bishop of Lichfield (1896). Became a critic of Darwinism from the 1870s.