German chemist. Studied chemistry at Giessen, Breslau (Wrocław), and Berlin, receiving his doctorate in 1847. Worked in his father’s wine business, eventually setting up a private laboratory in Breslau in 1866. Stepped down as head of the business in 1886 and moved to Berlin in 1891. Worked on the oxidation process in animals and plants. Discovered that alcoholic fermentation was caused by a non-living enzyme. Developed the Traube cell, an artificial semi-permeable membrane, for osmotic investigations.