Army surgeon. Stationed in South Africa, 1820–36. Principal medical officer at Fort Pitt, Chatham, 1836; deputy inspector-general, 1845. Director-general, army and ordnance medical departments, 1853–8. Blamed in the press for the scandalous state of medical care of British troops in the Crimean campaign, but was exonerated of dereliction of duty by parliamentary committees. An authority on South African zoology. Knighted, 1858. FRS 1857.