Medical psychologist. MD, University College Hospital, London, 1857. Assistant medical officer, Wakefield Asylum, 1857–8; medical superintendent, Manchester Royal Lunatic Asylum, 1859–62. Physician, West London Hospital, from 1864; lecturer on insanity, St Mary’s Hospital, London, 1868–81; professor, medical jurisprudence, University College, London, 1869–79. Joint editor, Journal of Mental Science, 1863–78. Developed a lucrative private practice. Researched heredity and degeneration, and promoted belief in the physical causes of mental illness. Wrote extensively on medical jurisprudence. President, Medico-Psychological Association, 1870.