Physician. Professor of pathological anatomy at University College, London, 1849; Holme Professor of clinical medicine, 1860. Assistant, then full, physician to University College Hospital, 1849–76; consulting physician, 1879. Physician extraordinary to Queen Victoria, 1861; physician-in-ordinary, 1862. Established, through clinical studies, definitive evidence that typhus and typhoid were different diseases. FRS 1864.