Author and positivist. BA, Oxford (Wadham College), 1853. Studied at Lincoln’s Inn from 1855; called to the bar, 1858. Taught history and Latin at the London Working Men’s College in Bloomsbury. Wrote articles on politics for the Fortnightly Review. Appointed to the royal commission on trade unions, 1867; secretary, royal commission for the digest of the law, 1869. Helped found England’s first positivist centre in 1870. Examiner in jurisprudence, Roman law, and constitutional history for the Council of Legal Education from 1870; professor of jurisprudence, international law, and constitutional law, 1877–89. Alderman, London County Council, from 1889.