Chemist. Professor of chemistry, Putney College for Civil Engineering, 1850, and Owens College, Manchester, 1851–7. Lecturer in chemistry, St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, 1857–64. Professor of chemistry, Royal Institution of Great Britain, 1863–8, and Royal College of Chemistry, 1865–8. President of the Chemical Society, 1871–2; of the Institute of Chemistry, 1877–80. Director of the Royal College of Chemistry, 1868–85. Knighted, 1897. FRS 1853.