Physiologist and politician. BA, University College, London, 1854; MD 1859. Practised medicine until 1866. Instructor in physiology and histology, University College, 1867; assistant professor, 1869. Fullerian Professor of physiology, Royal Institution of Great Britain. Praelector in physiology, Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1870; professor of physiology, Cambridge, 1883–1903. MP, University of London, 1900–6. Knighted, 1899. FRS 1872.