Palaeontologist and botanist. Superintendent of the botanic garden, Saharanpur, India, 1832–42. Superintended the arrangement of Indian fossils for the British Museum in 1844. Superintendent of the Calcutta botanic garden and professor of botany, Calcutta Medical College, 1848–55. Retired owing to ill health and returned to Britain in 1855; pursued palaeontological research while travelling in southern Europe. Vice-president of the Royal Society of London and foreign secretary of the Geological Society of London, 1865. FRS 1845.