Scottish-born physician, diplomat, and orientalist. Joined the East India Company medical service in 1803. Held several civil and political posts in Java, India, Siam (Thailand), Cochin China (southern Vietnam), Singapore, and Burma. Returned to England in 1827; promoted the study of Indo-China and campaigned on behalf of the Calcutta and Singapore trading communities against the East India Company. Published papers on ethnological and other subjects in various journals. President of the Ethnological Society of London, 1861–8. FRS 1818.