Naturalist and writer on religious topics. Lecturer on botany at the Royal Infirmary Medical School, Liverpool, 1858–66. Also lectured on biology at the Liverpool School of Science. Served as surgeon and naturalist on HMS Rifleman and HMS Serpent on voyages of exploration in the China seas, 1866–7; carried out research in marine zoology. On his return to Liverpool, became senior physician of the Northern Hospital and took a leading part in the intellectual life of the city. A Swedenborgian.