One of our caricatures is missing!

[News:  Thanks to Glenn Branch of the National Center for Science Education, we now think we may be looking for a version of an 1859 painting by William Holbrook Beard called "The Youthful Darwin Expounding his Theories".  Full update to follow.]

 

Help!  Can you identify a missing Darwin caricature?  All we know is that it was called “The Young Darwinian” and was drawn by the American comic illustrator Thomas Francis Beard.  A copy was sent to Darwin in 1872 by his friend Asa Gray but Darwin didn’t keep it.

 

[NB The image on the left is just for illustrative purposes - as some people spotted, it is a poorly disguised version of a caricature  from The Hornet, 1871, which is still with Darwin's papers.]

 

Volume 20 of the Correspondence, with all the letters from 1872, is about to go to press and we would love to be able to include an image of the caricature, but so far neither of our crack research teams on either side of the Atlantic has been able to find it.   We think it was probably drawn in 1871 or 1872 in response to Darwin’s book Descent of Man.   Beard was a prolific artist who worked for a number of US magazines and newspapers, including  Phunny Phellow, Wild Oats, Budget of Fun, Jolly Joker, Comic Monthly, and Harper’s Weekly.

 

Here is what was written to Darwin about it:

 

Letter from Asa Gray,  11 June 1872

 

Cambridge [Mass]

June 11, 1872

My Dear Darwin

I dare say you have long ago the clever thing referred to in Prof. Rood’s letter; I send the copy by a friend who will post it in Liverpool—so that it should reach you nearly as soon as this letter.

. . .

Ever yours cordially | Asa Gray

 

[Enclosure]

 

341 East 15th. St | New York

June 8th. 1872.

Dear Professor:

I send you by express two copies of The Young Darwinian, (from the artist, Mr Beard) One is intended for Mr Darwin the other for yourself.

The artist assured me that it was executed in a purely neutral

spirit, and without any intention of casting ridicule—on either

side.

We in New York enjoyed it very much

Sincerely | O. N. Rood

Beard is a very talented fellow, and would no doubt be delighted by a

line from you, though he dont expect it. | R

 

 

 

The letters are now in Cambridge University Library, DAR 106: D13–14

Anne Schlabach Burkhardt (1916–2012)

Photograph courtesy of Marsha Richmond

We regret to announce the death of Anne Schlabach Burkhardt on 11 March 2012. Anne Burkhardt has been associated with the Darwin Correspondence Project since its beginning in 1974, and her contribution to its work has helped ensure the regular publication of the volumes of correspondence. She will be greatly missed.

 

Anne was born in La Crosse, Wisconsin, and studied first at Ohio Wesleyan University and then at the University of Wisconsin where she was awarded a PhD in philosophy.  She taught philosophy at Bennington College, Vermont for 32 years, from 1948 until 1980, marrying Fred Burkhardt in 1972.  From 1974 when Fred founded the Darwin Correspondence Project, until 2004, she accompanied him on annual summer visits to Cambridge, UK, devoting herself to checking the transcriptions of the letters.  She continued this crucial assistance back at their home in Bennington.  Even before she retired from Bennington College, she began organising groups of volunteers to help proofread the texts.  Indeed, legend has it that it became positively dangerous to attend Bennington cocktail parties, for even the slightest hint of an interest in the Darwin Project would lead to an invitation to a morning of proofreading.  This work, which Anne continued after Fred’s death in 2007, was essential; as Fred always emphasized, good transcriptions could survive poor footnotes, but brilliant footnotes could never make up for errors in the letter texts.  However, Anne’s contribution to the project was not limited to this.  Her humour, astute judgement of the tasks that really mattered, and measured dedication were hugely appreciated by all who had the privilege to know and to work with her.

Talk about Darwin’s Conflict with Samuel Butler

Samuel Butler (1835--1902)

As part of Cambridge Science Festival, the Darwin Correspondence Project’s Alison Pearn will be giving a talk ‘Falling foul of natural selection: Samuel Butler and the Darwins’ on Saturday 17 March at 3.30pm at St John’s College Library, St John’s Street, Cambridge. She will look at the letters exchanged by Charles Darwin and Samuel Butler and chart the disintegration of their relationship, from a shared spirit of intellectual enquiry to a state of personal and public conflict. You can book for the free talk by telephoning 01223 766766, or on the Festival website here.

 

The event is part of the Butler day at St John’s College, which also includes an exhibition ‘Evolution: The Race to Understanding’, and talks by Ben Irvine at 12pm and Elinor Shaffer at 2pm.

 

 

Dine Like Darwin

Beet Salad

What better way to start the new year than an afternoon of Victorian science and domestic life? On January 4 the Harvard office of the Darwin Correspondence Project helped to host an event at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, cosponsored by the Program in Science, Technology and Society. MIT holds events during its winter intersession that promote interesting and unusual activities for the university community. Our event ‘Dine Like Darwin’ brought together an afternoon of Victorian cooking, along with reading and discussion of Darwin’s letters to help illuminate Darwin’s daily life and the role his digestive complaints played in his private and public persona.

 

 

We recreated some of the very food that Darwin ate, using authentic recipes from his wife

Myrna prepares beef collops

Emma Darwin’s cookbook. Our menu included several courses! We attempted to make the recipes as closely to Emma’s as possible, though we were indebted to the modernization of the recipes in this lovely production of Emma’s recipes. After our discussion, each participant was given a recipe and the rest of the time was spent cooking and sampling the fare as it emerged from the kitchen.  Though everything turned out wonderfully, particular favorites were the cheese straws (flavored with a touch of cayenne pepper), the potato rissoles and the creamed mushrooms. Since Victorian portions are generous, we were all quite full by the end of the session!

 

 

During his own lifetime, Darwin notoriously suffered from digestive problems that interfered with his work and social activities. Darwin was preoccupied with his health, and particularly his intestines, over the course of his adult life. He may have exploited his famously poor constitution as an excuse when he wanted to minimize interruptions to his work. If we are to understand Darwin as an influential intellectual, it is worth understanding his intestines and indigestion as well.


Rebecca at the stove

In his letters to family and friends, he was not afraid to be explicit about his symptoms and discomfort. From his youthful days on the HMS Beagle to his death, the state of his health is a constant theme running through his correspondence. It was also a matter of continual concern and interest among his family. Letters not only written to or from Darwin himself, but also those exchanged between his wife and children, are rife with references to his health. This correspondence is fascinating for the glimpse it provides of the bright and engaging personalities of the Darwin children, and of family life in the Victorian era more generally. Take a look at some of the letters the group read:

 

 

 

  • Charles Darwin to Caroline Darwin, 13 October 1834: Darwin’s ill health began on his Beagle voyage. Amidst the excitement of South American cities, cultures, geography, flora and fauna, he complains to his sister Caroline of the effects of sour wine on his physical state.
  • Emma Darwin to T.G. Appleton, 28 June [1862]: Emma writes on her husband’s behalf to his American publisher, T.G. Appleton. Darwin, who is too ill to write himself, wishes to thank Appleton for gifts sent from America.
  • Charles Darwin to Joseph Dalton Hooker, 11 June [1862]: Among bits of family news and botanical information, Darwin remarks with humor on the difficulties of finding a suitable cook.

 

The participants, who came from various departments at MIT, were all fascinated to learn more about Darwin’s family and digestive life through his letters. They were particularly intrigued by this letter written from Emma to Charles before they were married. In it Emma expressed her concern for Darwin’s health, her sympathy for the frustration he feels when his symptoms impinge on his ability to work, and her express desire that he not be a ‘holiday husband…always making himself agreeable’ for her sake.

 

Here is the Menu from the day:

Appetizer

Cheese Straws

Scotch Woodcock

Potato Rissoles

 

Main Course

Beef Collops

Chicken and Macaroni

Mushrooms

Salad

 

Dessert

Gingerbread

Compote of Apple

 

 

“Dine Like Darwin” was a wonderful opportunity to combine cooking and correspondence in a relaxed setting!

Darwin’s “warm little pond”

After reading about an experiment that showed some moulds could survive boiling, Darwin speculated in a letter to his friend Joseph Hooker that life on earth might have started in a “warm little pond”:

 

It is often said that all the conditions for the first production of a living organism are now present, which could ever have been present.— But if (& oh what a big if) we could conceive in some warm little pond with all sorts of ammonia & phosphoric salts,—light, heat, electricity &c present, that a protein compound was chemically formed, ready to undergo still more complex changes, at the present day such matter wd be instantly devoured, or absorbed, which would not have been the case before living creatures were formed.

Letter to J. D. Hooker, 1 Feb [1871]

 

A lovely chemical soup!  But not a popular theory among recent scientists who have increasingly looked for the origins of life around hot springs deep in the ocean.  Now new work suggests Darwin may have been on the right track: researchers in Germany have looked, among other things, at the relative levels of salt and potassium in living organisms and think Darwin’s pond is a better fit for our first home than the ocean floor.  You can read about their theories on the New Scientist website.

 

Composite image copyright Cambridge University Library

We will be publishing Darwin’s letter to Hooker next month in volume 19 of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, along with all the other letters he wrote and received in 1871 (a vintage Darwin year).   Those letters will all also be made available on this site eventually, but in the meantime we have rushed the complete text of this particular letter online ahead of schedule.  You can read it here.

 

You can read more about Darwin’s correspondence in 1871 here.

 

 

Happy 203rd Birthday, Charles Darwin!

Charles Darwin was born on 12 February 1809. Below are a few excerpts from letters Darwin wrote or was sent on his birthday.

Can you identify Darwin’s ‘cake’ in the picture? Answer at the bottom!

 

Three letters written by his sister Susan while he was on the Beagle voyage:

 

I must begin this folio by wishing you joy my dear Charley of being this day 23 years old; and I heartily hope it may find you happy, and that you may continue so for many and many a year to come.

Darwin, S. E. to Darwin, C. R., 12 Feb 1832. See the letter

 

This is your Birthday; so I must begin my letter to wish you joy, and many happy returns of it (but not abroad) mind that.

Papa who never forgets anniversarys remembered this day of course at Breakfast and sends you his best love & blessing on reaching 25 years. Poor old Nurse Nancy entertained me all the time I was dressing this morg with many lamentations over your absence on this day when you ought to be eating Plum pudding with us, & all the Servants say she has not failed to put them in mind of you; so as I have often told you before, you are not forgotten by the least of us.—

Darwin, S. E. to Darwin, C. R., 12 Feb 1834. See the letter

 

It is always my fate to write to wish you joy upon your Birthday; but thank goodness this is the last I can do so, into foreign parts.— You are today 27—and I hope all the rest of your life you may spend very happily amongst us.—

Darwin, S. E. to Darwin, C. R., 12 Feb 1836. See the letter

 

One sent to his cousin, William Darwin Fox, as Darwin was writing Origin of Species:

 

My abstract is the cause, I believe of the main part of the ills to which my flesh is heir to; but I have only two more chapters & to correct all, & then I shall be a comparatively free man.—

Darwin, C. R. to Fox, W. D., [12 Feb 1859]. See the letter

And here are a few birthday letters we haven’t published yet:

Letter 10841: To Adrian Anthoni von Bemmelen and H. T. Veth, 12 February 1877

Sir.—

I received yesterday the magnificent present of the Album, together with your letter. I hope that you will endeavour to find some means to express to the two hundred en seventeen distinguished observers and lovers of natural science, who have sent me their photographs, my gratitude for their extreme kindness. I feel deeply gratified by this gift, and I do not think that any testimonial more honourable to me could have been imagined. I am well aware that my books could never have been written and would not have made any impression on the public mind, had not an immense account of material been collected by a long series of admirable observers; and it is to them that honour is chiefly due.

I suppose that every worker at science occasionally feels depressed, and doubts whether what he has published has been <wor>th the labour which it has cost him; <but for the remaining years of> my life, wh<enever> <I want cheering,> I will look at the <portraits of my> distinguished co-w<orkers> <in the> field of science, and remem<ber> <their> generous sympathy. When I die the album will be a most precious bequest to my children. I must further express my obligation for the very interesting history contained in your letter of the progress of opinion in the Netherlands with respect to Evolution, the whole of which is quite new to me. I must again thank all my kind friends, from my heart for their ever memorable testimonial, and I remain, | Sir | Your obliged and grateful | Servant | Charles R. Darwin

Copy

Provenance: Nature 15 1877: 412 & CUL DAR 202: 31 & C. C. Kohler 1994

Letter 11355: From W. D. Fox, 12 February [1878]

Broadlands, | Sandown, I.W.
Feb 12

My dear old Friend

For surely I may call you so, as you and one other, are all left of our friendships at a time when life was glorious. It is not bad now tho’ I am nearly 73—and few have been happier than I have. I rejoiced to hear from your Son at Southampton that you had all a most happy family party at Christmas— (How I should have liked a peep at you all from behind a curtain). May you have many happy Christmas’s—and therefore many happy returns of your Birthday.

I saw one day, that you were born in 1809— I am glad to hear you are four years younger than myself— I always thought you were only two.

We were so glad to hear of W Es marriage. He is just the man to make a splendid Husband—and seems as happy as possible. You and I have been so happy in our marriages that we can only wonder all do <no>t marry. But it is not always that a man can meet with his double.

We have an anxious house this winter in nursing one of my daughters who I believe slept in a damp bed last summer, and has never been well since. We have feared (& still do) consumption—but all the Drs say there is no really consumptive symtoms, but that there is inflammatory action of the air cells, complicated with Asthma.

A fortnight since, my only comfort in watching her, was that Asthma was the then agent of evil, and so it proved—and ever since she has been improving, but I have more fear than hope of the issu<e> I have, like all the world, (except I hope you and yours) been laid up with Bronchitis, and have not been out of doors this year.

However I am much better, and we are longing for sun and warm air for our dear Invalid.

But why bother you with these troubles— When I sat down I only meant to congratulate you and Mrs Darwin on your Birthday, and wish you all blessings thro the remainder of your life.

Mrs Fox joins most heartily with me in these wishes

Ever Dear old Darwin | Yours affectly | W. D. Fox

Provenance: CUL DAR 164: 202

Letter 11358: To Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878]

Down Beckenham Kent
Feb. 12th

My dear Friend

I thank you sincerely for all your most kind words & good wishes on my birth-day. My health has been better of late, & I am able to do every day what I consider a fair amount of work, but what you would consider a mere trifle. Considering my age it will be the more prudent course for me not to attempt to write on large & difficult subjects of a general nature, but to use my remaining strength in studying small special points, & thus to aid, as far as I can, the noble cause of science. To you & others must be left the extending & fortifying the principles of Evolution.— I am now working with the aid of my son Francis chiefly on the growth, movements & development of seedling plants; & we have observed some new & curious facts.—

I rejoice to hear that you are well, & that you are hard at work, about which I did not in the least doubt. As you say time time is what is wanted most.—

With all good wishes to you & yours & with many thanks

Yours very sincerely | Charles Darwin

Provenance: Ernst-Haeckel-Haus, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitàt, Jena

Letter 11874: From Zoological Station of Naples, 12 February 1879

The Zoological Stations of Naples and the naturalists diferent nations there assembled presents there warmest congratulations to the veteran of Modern Zoology on the occaison of this seventieth Birthday

Postmark: “FE 12 | 79″
Telegram
Provenance: CUL DAR 172: 2

Letter 13678: From Max Steffen & six other German students | 12 February 1882

Halle a/Saale
Febr. 12th. 1882.

Sir!

On the 75^th. return of your birth-day seven German students drink on your health in the old Teutonic manner.

Albrecht von Bockelmann, stud. rer. nat.
Theodor Bombe, stud. phil. et geogr.
Hermann Engelmann, stud. phil.
Arthur Petry, stud. rer. nat. et geogr.
H. Scheer, stud. rer. nat.
B. < > stud. phil.
Max Steffen, stud. phil.

Provenance: CUL DAR 177: 253

 

 

Answer: Darwin’s ‘cake’ is adapted from a sketch of a section through the anthers of a lupin (Lupinus polyphyllus), sent to him by William Allport Leighton on 29 May 1865.  Obvious really…!

 

 

Sex sells!

A sheet of butterfly wings sent to Darwin from Brazil in 1871 (DAR 242: 58); it will be reproduced as a plate in volume 19 of the Correspondence

I hear that Ladies think it delightful reading, but that it does not do to talk about it, which no doubt promotes the sale.

 

In 1871 Darwin published Descent, his long-awaited book on human evolution, and all 2500 copies of the first printing sold immediately with a further 5000 printed in the course of the year.  The full title is On the descent of man and selection in relation to sex, which may have had something to do with its success.

 

We have just sent volume 19 of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, to press and are all very glad to see it go.  Our biggest volume to date, it is also one of the meatiest, containing more than 800 letters Darwin wrote and received in 1871 – the exceptionally large number reflecting both the intense interest with which Descent was received, and the importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents to the final flurry of activity for his next book, The expression of the emotions in man and animals.   Here are some other highlights:

 

I believe Mr Mivart to be a thoroughly honourable man: but he was educated as a lawyer . . .

The zoologist St George Jackson Mivart’s critique of the theory of natural selection, On the genesis of species, appeared at almost the same time as Descent. Darwin found his criticisms deeply unfair, and was further distressed by Mivart’s hostile review of Descent in the Quarterly Review: ‘He makes me the most arrogant, odious beast that ever lived.’  Darwin corresponded directly with Mivart but also expressed his growing indignation in letters to others, charting the deterioration of their relationship – a rare case of Darwin taking personal offense.

 

‘I care for nothing in the world except. laughing. crying grinning pouting &c. &c’

Once Descent was published, Darwin continued his work on Expression, which he had once hoped to include as a chapter in Descent. By this time he was selecting photographs and woodcuts for inclusion in the book (the photographs were produced by the new heliotype process, which for the first time made a photographically illustrated book relatively affordable), as well as discussing fine details of physiology with colleagues in Britain and Europe.

 

It is great news about Henrietta’s marriage . . .

1871 was also a significant year for Darwin’s family: his eldest daughter, Henrietta, married Richard Buckley Litchfield, whom she met only that year, after a brief engagement. Darwin fretted at the idea of Henrietta’s leaving home – she had been an immense help to him as an editor as well as a daily companion. ‘Several reviewers speak of the lucid vigorous style etc.— Now I know how much I owe to you in this respect, which includes arrangement, not to mention still more important aids in the reasoning’, Darwin wrote to her after the publication of Descent.  Henrietta’s short but intensely personal journal of the months leading up to her marriage is published in this volume for the first time.

 

Horace, Darwin’s youngest son, passed his first examination at Cambridge University in December, and planned to study mathematics and science. In his letter of congratulations, Darwin became philosophical:

 

‘I have been speculating last night what makes a man a discoverer of undiscovered things . . .  — Many men who are very clever, —much cleverer than discoverers, —never originate anything. As far as I can conjecture, the art consists in habitually searching for the causes or meaning of everything which occurs.’

 

We look forward to seeing the book in print, and meanwhile are already well into the letters from 1872; we’ll be writing about some of our favourites here.

Where’s Eliza? Victorian guerilla advertising

 

Advert from the Post Office Directory, London and the Home Counties, 1872

In 1872, Samuel Butler wrote to Darwin about his book Erewhon, which had just been published, to explain that his chapter on the rise of machines was not anti-Darwinian as many critics thought but a pro-Darwinian satire. Excusing his failure to make his intention clear, he remarked, ‘the more enigmatic a thing of this sort is the more people think for themselves about it, on the principle that advertisers ask “Where is Eliza?” and “Who is Griffiths?”‘ Familiar references to Darwin and Butler, apparently, but where was Eliza? And who was Griffiths? A quick trawl through some Victorian literature seemed called for …

 

The Victorian age was a great time for advertising. Vast numbers of things were on sale thanks to the industrial revolution, and there was little regulation of what could be claimed or where adverts could be stuck (although you could be prosecuted for sticking things on other people’s walls this does not seem to have acted as much of a deterrent). The wordy, earnest, clunkily illustrated adverts in the popular press are reliably entertaining. But it seems the Victorians could be as sophisticated at creating a buzz as any modern media agency.

 

“Who’s Griffiths?” was a question posted on walls in the 1860s. The answer was not hard to find: he was “a safe man”, that is, he made safes, and he advertised in The Times as well, to make all clear. “Where’s Eliza?” appeared on walls in the 1840s, but it seems that no one ever found out who she was or where: or if they did, the information has been lost. Many subsequent writers put the slogan in the same class as “Who’s Griffiths?”, although they generally speculate that Eliza was a missing person (or as Chamber’s Edinburgh Journal of 1853 puts it, ‘some modern Thisbe unhappily lost in the wilderness of this great Babylon, for whose restoration her love-lorn and bewildered Pyramus distractedly appeals to London Wall through the medium of the billsticker’.) Evidently the answer, ‘Ask Strange, of Paternoster-row’, had appeared in some instances: Strange was a publisher. Was he selling a book about Eliza? If so, her name seems not to have been in the title. And was this evocative phrase, remembered with puzzlement decades later, an example of successful or unsuccessful advertising: or was it advertising at all?

 

[The letter will be published in volume 20 of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin]

A new look – and hundreds of new letters

Our site looks a bit different, but we have more than just a new skin: we have added some significant new material, and – we hope – made everything easier to find. We would appreciate feedback so please contact us if you have queries or comments.

Three areas of the site in particular are being actively developed: the Schools pages, the Darwin & Gender pages, and the Darwin & Human Nature pages. And we will be writing an Editors’ blog with all those snippets that usually hit the cutting room floor – or just spark animated discussion over tea – as we research letters for publication.

And we have added the full texts of nearly 800  letters from the year 1868 which were originally published in volume 16 of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin.

Here are some highlights:

 

My book is horribly delayed …

In January 1868, Darwin’s Variation under domestication was published; it had first been advertised in 1865. The first printing of 1500 rapidly sold out and the publisher, John Murray, ordered a second printing. Responses to the new book, added to Darwin’s continuing research into sexual selection and the expression of the emotions, increased the quantity of Darwin’s correspondence to such an extent that the letters for 1868 filled two print volumes.

I am bothered with heaps of foolish letters …

But not all the letters were so foolish. The year 1868 saw much correspondence with entomologists and animal breeders on the subject of the proportion of the sexes, sexual dimorphism, and the age at which the differences between the sexes arose. Farmers, scholars, and others all over the country were mobilised:

It was … almost heroic, in you to sacrifice your hair and pay 3d in the cause of science …

–Darwin wrote to John Jenner Weir, who had submitted to an unnecessary haircut in order to get information from one of the foremost canary experts in London, a hairdresser.

by patiently collecting facts … a dim ray of light may be gained

Darwin also continued with his work on the expression of the emotions, requesting zoo-keepers and new mothers to send observations on the weeping of elephants and infants. His son Francis was also pressed into service, to simulate screams as Darwin observed the musculature of his head and neck.

I am not sure whether it wd not be wisest for scientific men quite to ignore the whole subject of religion.

With Darwin’s friend and ally J. D. Hooker acting as president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1868, the subject of the moral and social impact of the theory of natural selection was guaranteed a thorough airing. Hooker’s pro-Darwinian address at the association’s annual meeting in August drew both approving and condemnatory reviews from the press. Thomas Huxley commented on the ‘terrible Darwinismus’ that had broken out at the meeting, influencing even a discussion of Buddhist temples, and jokingly threatened to ‘go into opposition’.

How about Photographs?

While Hooker and Huxley were happily setting the cat among the pigeons, Darwin was holidaying on the Isle of Wight at a house owned by Julia Margaret Cameron, a gifted photographer with an energetic personality. Cameron took photographs of Darwin and some of his family and of Hooker; these photographs are included as plates in this volume.

a complete and premeditated swindler …

Sadly, Darwin returned home to difficult parish business. Earlier in the year, the curate, Samuel Horsman, had departed, disappointed with the parish, and apparently taking with him the organ fund. His replacement, John Robinson, also swiftly absented himself, and when he was in the parish, was suspected of walking with young women at night. Darwin liaised with the absentee vicar, John Brodie Innes, reluctantly passing on village gossip. By December, he was urging Innes in the strongest terms to make some permanent settlement: if the church continued to fall into disrepute, he wrote, ‘great injury will be done here, which it will take years to repair.’

I shall burst with pleasure …

Darwin’s family gave him great cause for satisfaction in 1868. In January, George gained second place in the mathematical examinations at Cambridge University; and in July, Leonard came second in the entrance examinations for the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.

At the end of the year, Darwin sat to the sculptor Thomas Woolner, who had been commissioned to make a bust of him. Uncomfortable as he was with the process, Darwin wrote,

I tell my wife she will be proud of her old husband.

 

Our thanks to our colleagues at CARET who have worked with us on the design and on a lot of behind the scenes improvements.  We are grateful to our publishers, Cambridge University Press for allowing us to bring forward the date of online publication for the letters from 1868, and to the Bonita Trust, the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the National Science Foundation, and John Templeton Foundation who have supported the online work.